He or she must know which method suits the local conditions b. Applying it beneath the soil surface 4. Again, it is not possible to give specific guidelines leading to a single best solution; each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Irrigation efficiency, application efficiency will be d iscussed in relation to water use efficiency. You’ll learn all the above mentioned irrigation methods in details here. Irrigation would provide farmers with sustained livelihoods and improve their general well-being. 5. Drip irrigation system Or trickle irrigation is one of the latest and modern methods of irrigation.It is suitable for water scarcity and salt affected soils. Water is applied from a channel located at the upper reach of the Loss of water by conveyance and deep percolation is high and the efficiency of irrigation is only 40-50% at field level in this method of irrigation. Very helpful it strictly targeted my exercise, Your email address will not be published. Among all the irrigation methods, the drip irrigation is the most efficient and it can be practised in a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops. Irrigation offers moisture required for growth and development, germination and other related functions. 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But all of these studies, ignore the continuous changes of soil properties and so it causes their evaluation results are not accurate enough. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the important methods of irrigation, i.e., (1) Surface Irrigation (2) Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation (3) Drip or Trickle Irrigation. Natural conditions. Sub Surface Irrigation. Also Read: Crop Production and Management. In general, drip and sprinkler irrigation are technically more complicated methods. It was very useful for my seminar presentation. Short, level furrows - also called furrow basins - can, like basins, be constructed and maintained by hand. Excess water leads to waterlogging, hinder germination, increased salt concentration and uprooting because roots can’t withstand standing water. Machine operation requires a high level of skill, organization and usually foreign currency. The process of supplying water to the crops is known as irrigation. The modern method compensates the disadvantages of traditional methods and thus helps in the proper way of water usage. If, on the other hand, a large amount of irrigation water is to be applied per application, e.g. Furrow irrigation is best used for irrigating row crops such as maize, vegetables and trees. Drip irrigation with saline water is one of the most effective methods to ease the current worldwide water shortage. The sediments may clog the drip or sprinkler irrigation systems. A sprinkler system, as its name suggests, sprinkles water over the crop and helps in an even distribution of water. Nutrients may also be provided to the crops through irrigation. This section discusses some of the important factors which should be taken into account when determining which surface irrigation method is most suitable: basin, furrow or border irrigation. Testing of the various methods - under To identify potential irrigable land, irrigation suitability factors such as soil type, slope, land cover/use, and distance from water supply were taken into account. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: Natural conditions; Type of crop; Type of technology The net irrigation application values used are only a rough guide. Optimum irrigation management is an important factor in precise agriculture. A statistical method will be used to identify the best locations to sample soil for the purpose of assessing the scale of the opportunity for irrigation across the regions. However, the climate supports cultivation throughout the year. (However, none of the surface irrigation methods can be used if the sand is very coarse, i.e. However, there are more ionic compositions in saline water, resulting in easy clogging of drip irrigation emitters. Water is distributed through a system of pumping stations gates, ditches and canals by raising the water table. This method can vary in different regions. There are five basic methods of irrigation (flooding, furrow irrigation, trickle, sprinkling, and sub irrigation). Some examples of the traditional system are pulley system, lever system, chain pump. To maintain the equipment a high level of 'know-how' has to be available,. To know more about irrigation, its types, methods and importance, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download the BYJU’S app for further reference. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no single best solution: all methods Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. Testing of the various methods – under the prevailing local conditions – provides the best basis for a sound choice of irrigation method. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e. For the operation of furrow and border irrigation systems more labour is required combined with more skill. Irrigation helps to increase productivity even in low rainfall. Border irrigation is particularly suitable for close growing crops such as alfalfa, but border irrigation can also be used for row crops and trees. They result from a combination of soil type and rooting depth. For example, summer crops require a higher amount of water as compared to winter crops. 2.4 Crop-Water requirement calculation by Penman method and computer software (CROPWAT-8) 2.5 Principal crops, their seasons and water requirements 2.6 Method of applying water to irrigation field as surface, sub-surface and Sprinkler methods 2.7 Techniques of surface irrigation and their suitability = (CO 3 — + HCO a) – (Ca ++ + Mg ++) Irrigation waters have been grouped into classes of low, medium, high and very high, depending upon their suitability for irrigations as shown below: . The servicing of the equipment may be problematic and the costs may be high compared to the benefits. If irrigation is used traditionally, it is usually simpler to improve the traditional irrigation method than it is to introduce a previously unknown method. In this type of irrigation, either the field is flooded (this is known as Basin Irrigation) or the water is fed into small channels (this is known as furrow irrigation). A. if the infiltration rate is more than 30 mm/hour.). In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface , at a low rate varying from 2 – 20 litres per hour. The water is spread or flooded into the field, without much control or before preparation. 230 IRRIGATION SUITABILITY RATINGS AND OKRA PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME MID-BENUE TROUGH SOILS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 1Abagyeh, S. O. I., 2Ibo, P. I. and 1Idoga, S. 1Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Benue State 2Benue Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Makurdi, Benue State Corresponding Author’s e-mail: … Sub-surface III. This is often done by machines. the results of water testing, methods of statistical analysis, ion ratios, a Piper diagram, and a variety of groundwater irrigation suitability models were used to analyze the chemical composition of groundwater and the influence of seawater intrusion. Still, we have to depend on some outside sources to fulfil the water requirements of our body. Surface irrigation can be used for all types of crops. The productivity on irrigated land is higher as compared to the un-irrigated land. The manual describes in some detail the basin and furrow irrigation methods. It has a simpler design than the furrow and border design. On loam or clay soils all three irrigation methods can be used, but surface irrigation is more commonly found. The equipment needed is often easier to maintain and less dependent on the availability of foreign currency. The above considerations have been summarized in Table 5. It is obvious that farmers will only be interested in implementing a certain method if they consider this economically attractive. Borders require the highest level of sophistication. To choose an irrigation method, the farmer must know the advantages and disadvantages Field experience has shown that most water can be applied per irrigation application when using basin irrigation, less with border irrigation and least with furrow irrigation. About seventy per cent of the human body consists of water while plants contain almost 90 per cent of water. In this system, water is applied to each plant through a network of pipes under low pressure. Among these, the pump system is the most common and used widely. The last column indicates which irrigation method is most suitable. The different types of irrigation include- sprinkler irrigation, surface irrigation, drip irrigation, sub-irrigation and manual irrigation. Factors affecting the suitability of an irrigation method. Nutrients may also be provided to the crops through irrigation. Here, the water is distributed through watering cans by manual labour. on a clay soil and with a deep rooting crop, border or basin irrigation would be more appropriate. Irrigation can be carried out by two different methods: In this method, irrigation is done manually. I like it very much. Irrigation has stabilized the output and yield levels. Irrigation facilities make it possible to grow more than one crop in most of the areas of the country. Also the border, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods are discussed, but in less detail. Using groundwater influenced by seawater intrusion for irrigation can lead to crop failure, erosion of machinery and pipes, and adverse effects on farming. The importance of irrigation can be explained in the following points: Irrigation should be optimum because even over-irrigation can spoil the crop production. Let us have a look at different types of irrigation and the methods used for irrigation. They are seldom used for the lower value staple crops. The various sources of water for irrigation are wells, ponds, lakes, canals, tube-wells and even dams. Paddy rice is always grown in basins. Flooding 3. But its efficiency is poor because of the uneven distribution of water. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e. It is not certain that the farmers will accept the new method. ( 2012 ) and El Omran et al. Factors to be taken into account include: Flat lands, with a slope of 0.1% or less, are best suited for basin irrigation: little land levelling will be required. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: The natural conditions such as soil type, slope, climate, water quality and availability, have the following impact on the choice of an irrigation method: Sandy soils have a low water storage capacity and a high infiltration rate. The approximate rooting depths of the most Important field crops are given in Volume 4. ( 2014 ) proposed a model to assess and map irrigation water well suitability using geospatial analysis. They are constructed and maintained by machines. Required fields are marked *. Some physical and biological properties, such as turbidity and presence of algae, bacteria or viruses, also determine the suitability of the water for irrigation. Water application efficiency (see Annex 4, step 8) is generally higher with sprinkler and drip irrigation than surface irrigation and so these methods are preferred when water is in short supply. In general it can be stated that to operate the system, basin irrigation requires the least labour and the least skill. When the irrigation schedule has been determined (see Volume 4) it is known how much water (in mm) has to be given per irrigation application. These costs should then be compared with the expected benefits (yields). Border irrigation can be used on sloping land up to 2% on sandy soil and 5% on clay soil. Here, water is distributed across the land by gravity. Under these circumstances, sprinkler or drip irrigation are more suitable than surface irrigation. An exception is rice grown on terraces on sloping lands. Basin irrigation is the simplest of the surface irrigation methods. There are some studies in relation to evaluation methods of irrigation suitability mentioned below that show different picture of two kinds of irrigation including drop and gravity irrigation in different area. Controlled: Water is applied from the head ditch and … Water is an essential element for survival. One chapter is devoted to the choice of an appropriate irrigation method. Residual Sodium Carbonate (R.S.C.) 18 & 19. The smaller the basins, the easier their construction, operation and maintenance. The increased number of alternative irrigation methods, drought and water shortages, increasing demand for food, concern for environmental protection, government involvement in the promotion of pressurized irrigation and private sector interest (the interest of suppliers of irrigation equipments to increase their income regardless of the consequences for farmers) have heightened … When a variety of different soil types is found within one irrigation scheme, sprinkler or drip irrigation are recommended as they will ensure a more even water distribution. the prevailing local conditions - provides the best basis for a sound choice They therefore need frequent but small irrigation applications, in particular when the sandy soil is also shallow. There are different types of irrigation practised for improving crop yield. A minimum slope of 0.05% is recommended to ensure adequate drainage. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: - natural conditions - type of crop Many other crops can also be grown in basins: e.g. Type of crop. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no single best solution: all methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Here, a farmer pulls out water from wells or canals by himself or using cattle and carries to farming fields. Your email address will not be published. have their advantages and disadvantages. Spraying it under pressure 2. The sizes of the furrows, borders and basins have been discussed in the previous chapters. This method can also be used in regions where water availability is less. However, it must be remembered that efficiency is just as much a function of the irrigator as the method used. These types of irrigation systems are practised based on the different types of soils, climates, crops and resources. 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