In their poems Kings are often talked of: these may have been historical personages, but they completely vanish in fable; e.g., they retire from the world, and then appear again, after they have passed ten thousand years in solitude. We cannot speak, in reference to China, of a Constitution; for this would imply that individuals and corporations have independent rights – partly in respect of their particular interests, partly in respect of the entire State. In the year 650 B.C. As to the sciences themselves, History among the Chinese comprehends the bare and definite facts, without any opinion or reasoning upon them. For to us religion means the retirement of the Spirit within itself, in contemplating its essential nature, its inmost Being. Thence extend in a southwesterly direction the river districts of the Tigris and the Euphrates. The whole seashore is already strewed with the bodies of persons who have thus immolated themselves. When, on one occasion, the last English embassy to China was conducted home from the palace by the princes and their retinue, the Master of the Ceremonies, in order to make room, without any ceremony cleared the way among the princes and nobles with a whip. These several Empires had in their turn various fortunes; though here we meet with a confusion in the accounts which has never been cleared up. (He was also a Marxist.) Free from a proud taciturnity or repelling hauteur in speech or manners, he lives in the consciousness of his own dignity and in the exercise of imperial duties to whose observance he has been disciplined from his earliest youth. The number necessary for use is reckoned at 9,353, or even 10,516, if we add those recently introduced; and the number of characters generally, for ideas and their combinations as they are presented in books, amounts to from 80,000 to 90,000. For example: A Censor had remonstrated with a tyrannical sovereign, but had been severely repulsed. With a merely sensuous life – this being a form of consciousness which does not attain to general conceptions – cruelty is connected; because Nature itself is the Highest, so that Man has no value, or only the most trifling. When the entire Persian host, to which this division belonged, was to engage in an expedition, a summons was first issued to all the Asiatic populations. A bishop who was subsequently despatched, enacted that instead of “Heaven,” the term “Lord of Heaven” should be adopted. But though in Judaism the Individual is not respected, the Family has inherent value; for the worship of Jehovah is attached to the Family, and it is consequently viewed as a substantial existence. It is in two departments that the so-called Incomprehensible meets us – in living Nature and in Spirit. These books are the groundwork of the history, the manners and the laws of China. With the Empire of China History has to begin, for it is the oldest, as far as history gives us any information ; and its principle has such substantiality, that for the empire in question it is at once the oldest and the newest. The city is reputed to have had a hundred brazen (i.e. Marriageable daughters were disposed of by auction, and the high price offered for a belle was allotted as a dowry for her plainer neighbor. The two kingdoms, equally infelicitous in foreign and domestic warfare, were at last subjected to the Assyrians and Babylonians ; through Cyrus the Israelites obtained permission to return home and live according to their own laws. Chapter II. The connection of this with the Metempsychosis can be thus explained: All (that we see) is but a change of Form. It is the distinguishing feature of the Egyptian Spirit, that it stands before us as this mighty taskmaster. It was peculiarly important to the Persian Empire; for when Continental Persia set out on one of its great expeditions, it was accompanied by Phoenician as well as by Greek navies. The title therefore which I award to him is: Beneficent, Faithful and Wise.” – The Son had done all that is here ascribed to the Father. The Princes who are not immediately subject to them have English Agents at their Courts, and English troops in their pay. The one involves external ceremonies, Idol- Worship; the other requires that the Supreme Being should be honored in spirit. Here we have the Spiritual, not as one infinite, independent sovereignty over nature, but as a particular existence, side by side with the powers of Nature – characterized also by intrinsic particularity. We see in the Persian World a pure exalted Unity, as the essence which leaves the special existences that inhere in it, free; – as the Light, which only manifests what bodies are in themselves; – a Unity which governs individuals only to excite them to become powerful for themselves – to develop and assert their individuality. Herodotus says, that they had a symbol of truth on their breasts, and turned it towards that side in whose favor the cause was decided, or adorned the victorious party with it. It is contained in the fundamental dogma, that Nothingness is the principle of all things – that all proceeded from and returns to Nothingness. Their origin is referred to a myth, which tells us that the Brahmin caste proceeded from Brahma’s mouth; the Warrior caste from his arms; the industrial classes from his loins; the servile caste from his foot. We thus see Egypt intellectually confined by a narrow, involved, close view of Nature, but breaking through this; impelling it to self-contradiction, and proposing to itself the problem which that contradiction implies. The notices in question are, moreover, so indefinite, that they cannot properly be put in the category of knowledge. Amasis drew down upon him the ill-will of King Cambyses. Moral distinctions and requirements are expressed as Laws, but so that the subjective will is governed by these Laws as by an external force. The Brahmins are a present deity, but their spirituality has not yet been reflected inwards in contrast with Nature; and thus that which is purely indifferent is treated as of absolute importance. In this way the concrete complex of material things is isolated from Spirit, and presented in wild distraction, except as re-absorbed in the pure ideality of Brahm. This perhaps was designed to excite and keep in exercise that cunning for which the Egyptians were so celebrated. Introduction. This has been explained to import that the honor of being thus immortalized, was refused this king by the sentence of the Court of the Dead. It is related in the poem, that the King of Iran made war on Philip, and that this latter was beaten. It may be said of the Chinese that they are extremely sensitive to injuries and of a vindictive nature. But parents in their decease only pay the debt of Nature. The Vedas of the Indians are not such. How minute these directions are may be especially judged of from the observances binding on the Brahmins in regard to satisfying the calls of nature. Besides these three books of archives which are specially honored and studied, there are besides two others, less important, viz. Medicine, too, is studied by the Chinese, but only empirically; and the grossest superstition is connected with its practice. We find a number of granite walls on which hieroglyphics are graved, and the ancients have given us explanations of some of them, but which are quite insufficient. The third theatre of History comprises the river-plains of the Oxus and Jaxartes, the Upland of Persia, and the other valley-plains of the Euphrates and Tigris, to which Hither-Asia attaches itself. This form of Universality we see exhibited in Persia, involving a separation of man from the Universal essence; while at the same time the individual recognizes himself as identical with [a partaker in], that essence. The Manchus that live in China have to conform to Chinese laws, and study Chinese sciences. Ker Porter, an Englishman, about twelve years ago (his whole tour occupied from 1817 to 1820) traversed the countries where ancient Babylon lay: on an elevation he thought he could discover remains still existing of the old tower of Babel; and supposed that he had found traces of the numerous roads that wound around the tower, and in whose loftiest story the image of Bel was set up. It is that African imprisonment of ideas combined with the infinite impulse of the spirit to realize itself objectively, which we find here. The Brahmins have no conscience in respect to truth. The God of the Jewish People is the God only of Abraham and of his seed: National individuality and a special local worship are involved in such a conception of deity. But on the other hand it may be said, that if the soul is recognized as a permanent existence, honor should be shown to the body, as its former abode. In his ancestral land the King was a friend among friends, and as if surrounded by equals. Necho was followed by Psammis, and the latter by Apries, who led an army against Sidon, and engaged with the Tyrians by sea: against Cyrene also he sent an army, which was almost annihilated by the Cyrenians. In contrast with this inebriate Dream-life, which in the sphere of reality is bound fast in chains, we have the unconstrained Dream-life; which on the one hand is ruder than the former – as not having advanced so far as to make this distinction of modes of life – but for the same reason, has not sunk into the slavery which this entails. Holy places, where altars are erected, consist of four elevations, and one in the centre. Spirit has ceased to exist for itself in contrast with alien existence, and thus the separation of the external and individual dissolves before its universality – its essence. God governs the world; the actual working of his government — the carrying out of his plan — is the History of the World. Of the several parts of Asia we have already eliminated as unhistorical, Upper Asia (so far and so long as its Nomad population do not appear on the scene of history), and Siberia. The Persians are the first Historical People; Persia was the first Empire that passed away. Thus, as Persia did not constitute, politically, one Spirit, it appeared weak in contrast with Greece. In Ceylon and the Burman Empire – where this Buddhistic Faith has its roots – there prevails an idea, that man can attain by meditation, to exemption from sickness, old age and death. Every one has the power of selling himself and his children; every Chinese buys his wife. In the remote island of Thasos, they worked gold mines. A march of this kind looked almost like an emigration: their families accompanied them. This is the geographical position of Iran. Their frauds are most astutely and craftily performed, so that Europeans have to be painfully cautious in dealing with them. The more enigmatical and obscure it is to itself, so much the more does it feel the impulse to labor to deliver itself from its imprisonment, and to gain a clear objective view of itself. We will be reading the edition of Hegel’s Philosophy of History translated by J. Sibree, and published by Dover. The next problem is then, to harmonize these contradictory elements; and this problem presents itself in Egypt. While among the Phoenician people the Spiritual was still limited by Nature, in the case of the Jews we find it entirely purified; – the pure product of Thought. That elevated territory is bounded on the east by the Soliman mountains, which are continued in a northerly direction by the Hindoo Koosh and Belur Tag. Hegel is notoriously difficult. The Egyptian Hermes is celebrated as exhibiting the spiritual side of their theism. Diodorus Siculus says, that Egypt was the only country in which the citizens did not trouble themselves about the state, but gave their whole attention to their private business. Hegel’s Lectures on the History of Philosophy. In India, Nature is this governing power. Next to Sesostris the Kings Cheops and Chephren deserve special mention. In Persia namely, the Theocratic power appears as a Monarchy. This people, namely, attained to the consciousness, that absolute Truth must have the form of Universality – of Unity. The Emperor, as crown of all – the embodiment of power – alone approaches heaven; individuals, as such, enjoy no such privilege. So the Procreative Power, banished by Osiris, is represented as a particular divinity. – One of the principal representations on the sarcophagi is this judicial process in the realm of the dead. At the end of the year they intercalated five additional days, and Herodotus says that their arrangement was better than that of the Greeks. But in very deed it is only in Nature that we have to encounter the Incomprehensible; for the being manifest to itself is the essence [supplies the very definition of], Spirit: Spirit understands and comprehends Spirit. Of this religion of the Parsees or Fire-worshippers, there are still traces extant. Since, however, it is the abstract and absolute Thought itself that enters into these dreams as their material, we may say that Absolute Being is presented here as in the ecstatic state of a dreaming condition. Of the representations which Egyptian Antiquity presents us with, one figure must be especially noticed, viz. the European Stock. The Egyptians rebelled against him, accusing him of wishing to lead them to destruction; but this revolt was probably caused by the favor shown by him to the Carians and Ionians. It is difficult to discover what connection this had with their religious ideas. The proper basis of the State, the principle of freedom is altogether absent: there cannot therefore be any State in the true sense of the term. Among us, this would be an insult to honor; not so in China, where the feeling of honor has not yet developed itself. In virtue of his position he is obliged personally to manage the government, and must himself be acquainted with and direct the legislative business of the Empire, although the Tribunals give their assistance. His field, philosophy, is for Hegel the motorforce of history and it is his personal philosophy which marks the final culmination of this process. The Brahmins, to please their employer, produced statements of the kind required; but there was nothing of the sort in the manuscripts. Thoughts Occasioned by Hegel's Philosophy of Nature. The element of subjectivity is therefore as much wanting to this political totality as the latter is on its side altogether destitute of a foundation in the moral disposition of the subject. We also, when we contemplate the life and action of brutes, are astonished at their instinct – the adaptation of their movements to the object intended – their restlessness, excitability, and liveliness; for they are exceedingly quick and discerning in pursuing the ends of their existence, while they are at the same time silent and shut up within themselves. On returning to her father, she gave birth to a son – Skander, who hastened to Iran to take possession of the throne after the death of his father. Hegel-by-HyperText Home Page @ marxists.org. In China Buddha is reverenced as Fo; in Ceylon as Gautama; in Thibet and among the Mongols this religion has assumed the phase of Lamaism. Osiris – with Isis behind him – appears, holding a balance, while before him stands the soul of the deceased. He paints a situation whose time had passed and he knew it. The business of these governors consisted in collecting taxes and carrying on wars; and they thus formed a kind of aristocracy, the Prince’s Council of State. But we must reflect that in nations utterly corrupt, there are sides of character which may be called tender and noble. This plan philosophy strives to comprehend; for only that which has been developed as the result of it, possesses bona fide reality. In this way ancestors – a fashion the reverse of ours – obtain titles of honor through their posterity. The sciences, an acquaintance with which is especially required, are the History of the Empire, Jurisprudence, and the science of customs and usages, and of the organization and administration of government. Among them Magi were also found. The Chinese historians are very diffuse on the subject of these various origins. But judgment was passed on the dead by the living themselves; and that not merely in the case of private persons, but even of kings. It is true that subjective feeling is manifest – the pure heart, repentance, devotion; but the particular concrete individuality has not become objective to itself in the Absolute. We must here mention the Medes also. In the case of any grave crime not confessed, the Mandarins and their families are punished most severely. It may here be incidentally remarked, that the other Asiatic kingdoms also reach a high antiquity. In China the Universal Will immediately commands what the Individual is to do, and the latter complies and obeys with proportionate renunciation of reflection and personal independence. If we examine this fact of transition more closely, the question suggests itself – for example, in this first case of the kind, viz. The general form which the spirit of the Lamaistic development of Buddhism assumes, is that of a living human being; while in the original Buddhism it is a deceased person. These have each an appropriate Genius (Chen), which is subject to the Emperor, who pays adoration only to the general Power of Heaven, while the several Spirits of the natural world follow his laws. – Against the existence of “classes” generally, an objection has been brought – especially in modern times – drawn from the consideration of the State in its “aspect” of abstract equity. Herodotus gives us much information; the accounts in the Bible are also valuable and remarkable in the highest degree, for the Hebrews were immediately connected with the Babylonians. Although a Chinese may have many wives, one only is the mistress of the house, and the children of the subordinate wives have to honor her absolutely as a mother. Not only so; but he entirely falls back into involvement in existence, and is degraded under physical symbols. The relation to Tien is supposed to be such, that the good conduct of individuals and of the Emperor brings blessing; their transgressions on the other hand cause want and evil of all kinds. The element of freedom is wanting to it; for its object is the principle of Nature in general – Heaven – Universal Matter. The Task of the Historian of Philosophy, Hegel, 1830; Revival of the Sciences, Hegel 1806 » from Galileo to Feuerbach « Classical Epistemology. This Universal, Eternal, Infinite Essence is not recognized at first, as conditioned in any way; it is Unlimited Identity. If we compare these kingdoms in the light of their various fates, we find the empire of the two Chinese rivers the only durable kingdom in the World. In the Persian principle this unity is manifested as Light, which in this case is not simply light as such, the most universal physical element, but at the same time also spiritual purity – the Good. Besides him Diodorus Siculus is an authority of great importance; and among the Jewish historians, Josephus. The Ghiznian dynasty was soon entirely exterminated by the sweeping attacks of the Afghans and Moguls. In the state of dreaming, on the contrary, this separation is suspended. The son may not accost the father, when he comes into the room; he must seem to contract himself to nothing at the side of the door, and may not leave the room without his father’s permission. The annihilating of spiritual and physical existence has nothing concrete in it; and absorption in the abstractly Universal has no connection with the real. But in such ideals no account is taken of passion. The Phoenicians discovered and first navigated the Atlantic Ocean. Chapter III. In China, we have the reality of absolute equality, and all the differences that exist are possible only in connection with that administration, and in virtue of the worth which a person may acquire, enabling him to fill a high post in the Government. If a Brahmin is asked what Brahm is, he answers: When I fall back within myself, and close all external senses, and say dm to myself, that is Brahm. But the thought of death by no means occasioned depression. Psammitichus commenced such a connection, and thereby led the way to the ruin of Egypt. This feature is absolutely characteristic; and this alone would furnish us with a clear idea of the Spirit of the Hindoos, from which all that has been said might be deduced. The next people belonging to the Persian empire, in that wide circle of nationalities which it comprises, is the Jewish. But the King was only the abstract sovereign: the enjoyment of the country remained to the nations themselves; whose obligations were comprised in the maintenance of the court and the satraps, and the contribution of the choicest part of their property. This is the sphere of Understanding. Each had its own order of march and mode of warfare. With the Persian Empire we first enter on continuous History. The intelligence displayed in their legislative economy, appears characteristic of the Egyptians. The former has, though in a less degree than parents, claims to reverence. Light makes no distinctions: the Sun shines on the righteous and the unrighteous, on high and low, and confers on all the same benefit and prosperity. Since Spirit has not yet attained subjectivity, it wears the appearance of spirituality still involved in the conditions of Nature. This is forbidden to them in a great thoroughfare, on ashes, on ploughed land, on a hill, a nest of white ants, on wood destined for fuel, in a ditch, walking or standing, on the bank of a river, etc. The Europeans are treated as beggars, because they are compelled to leave their home, and seek for support elsewhere than in their own country. More definite information may be obtained from inscriptions and documents, especially from the deeds of gifts of land to pagodas and divinities ; but this kind of evidence supplies names only. Infanticide is also very common in India. Considering their antiquity they are remarkably well preserved: which is partly owing to the perpetually cloudless sky. At banquets they had representations of the dead (as Herodotus relates), with the admonition: “Eat and drink – such a one wilt thou become, when thou art dead.” Death was thus to them rather a call to enjoy Life. Hermes then embalms Osiris; and his grave is shown in various places. Thebes in Upper Egypt was the most ancient residence of the Egyptian kings. They exercise a strict surveillance over everything that concerns the government, and the public and private conduct of the Mandarins, and make their report immediately to the Emperor. But still more recently it has been discovered that there were five, or even eight or nine kings of that name in India; so that on this point also we are thrown back into utter uncertainty. For in these also there are only some leading features that pervade the whole. The innumerable edifices of the Egyptians are half below the ground, and half rise above it into the air. Hegel's The Philosophy of History; Hegel by HyperText, reference archive on Marxists.org; Wikimedia Commons có thêm hình ảnh và phương tiện truyền tải về Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Trang này được sửa đổi lần cuối vào ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 2020 lúc 11:15. Every bird, every monkey, is a present god, an absolutely universal existence. – There is in China no distinction in the penal code between higher and lower classes. The Kingdom of Bengal is especially flourishing. The Lama’s personality as such – his particular individuality – is therefore subordinate to that substantial essence which it embodies. In the first place, we must here cite the remarkable fact which Herodotus tells us, viz., that the Egyptians were the first to express the thought that the soul of man is immortal. There are besides those already mentioned, infinite modifications of the same principle of conduct, all pointing to annihilation. In contrast with the Chinese State, which presents only the most prosaic Understanding, India is the region of phantasy and sensibility. Its essence consists in the absence of activity and volition. This Universal principle – occupying the position of a root only – allows the several members a free growth for unrestrained expansion and ramification. Sparta The Medes therefore acted as a medium for propagating the Zend Religion. The Emperor in full court was the judge of these poems, and those recognized as good received public approbation. The Greek Apollo is its solution; his utterance is: “Man, know thyself.” In this dictum is not intended a self-recognition that regards the specialities of one’s own weaknesses and defects: it is not the individual that is admonished to become acquainted with his idiosyncrasy, but humanity in general is summoned to self-knowledge. Instead of stimulating the activity of a soul as their centre of union, and spontaneously realizing that soul – as is the case in organic life – they petrify and become rigid, and by their stereotyped character condemn the Indian people to the most degrading spiritual serfdom. 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