Therefore, He is more the end of everything than is any proximate end. For, even among bodies, one is higher than another, and more formal, and more active: as fire is in regard to lower bodies. And so, in his commentary on the text of Job 34:13 (“What other did He appoint over the earth?”) Gregory says: “Indeed, He Who created the world by Himself rules it by Himself” [Moralia XXIV, 20]. [4] Besides, the nearer certain things are to God, the more they participate in His likeness; and the farther they are away, the more defective are they in regard to His likeness. in regard to the last and most perfect act that matter can attain, the inclination of matter whereby it desires form must be inclined as toward the ultimate end of generation. Therefore, that which is the first cause in the order of final causes must be more the final cause of anything than is its proximate final cause. Therefore, no body is the cause of the being of anything, in so far as it is being, but it is the cause of its being moved toward being, that is, of the thing’s becoming. [7] Again, this becomes evident in the fact that riches are lost in an involuntary manner, and also that they may accrue to evil men who must fail to achieve the highest good, and also that riches are unstable-and for other reasons of this kind which may be gathered from the preceding arguments. [4] Besides, no particular univocal agent can be the unqualified cause of its species; for instance, this individual man cannot be the cause of the human species, for handwould then be the cause of every man, and, consequently, of himself—which is impossible. So, it is the same to know all the things that a power can do and to comprehend the power itself. The Summa Contra Gentiles is not merely the only complete summary of Christian doctrine that St. Thomas has written, but also a creative and even revolutionary work of Christian apologetics composed at the precise moment when Christian thought needed to be intellectually creative in order to master and assimilate the intelligence and wisdom of the Greeks and the … Now, evil is different from the good which every agent intends. [4] Besides, heavy and light bodies are moved by their generating agent, and by that which takes away any impediment to motion, as was proved in Physics VIII [4: 256a 1]. How the same effect is from God and from a natural agent, Chapter 71. [2] Again, whenever there is a highest member which surpasses others in a genus, we also find that there are degrees of more and less, depending on the greater proximity to, or distance from, this highest member. This is so because the agent intellect’s own act of understanding is the act of understanding of ‘the man who understands through it, as was said already. And thus it will not be true felicity which should be made free from all evil, as we showed above. [3] Again, the moral virtues have this purpose: through them the mean is preserved in the internal passions and in regard to external things. Now, if it works this way, since everything that moves itself is alive and animated, it would follow that the heavens are animated, and by no other soul than an intellectual one: not by a nutritive soul, for generation and corruption are not within its power; nor by a sensitive soul, for a celestial body has no diversity of organs. But the nature of a separate substance is not the same in species as the divine nature, not even the same in genus, as we showed in Book One [25]. Therefore, to be the cause of other things is good. [3] Again, the same principle must be the cause of a thing and of its preservation, for the preservation of a thing is nothing but the continuation of its being. However, if its being could not be participated by another, it could not be the form of any other thing, for then it would be determined within itself by its own being, just as material things are by their own matter. And it is not certain whether it would last until death, since for any man in this life there is the possibility of sickness, by which he may be completely impeded from the work of virtue: such things as mental illness and the like, by which the use of reason is halted. In fact, corporeal power is subject to sense and intellectual power, as carrying out their command, and the sensitive power is subject to the intellectual and is included under its command. He gives a proof for this, in the same place, using the following argument: If those things which are understood in themselves, namely, separate substances, were not possible for us to understand, they would be for no purpose, just as if there were a visible object which could not be seen by any visual power. So, if all generation and corruption were removed as a result of taking away the contingency of things, as we showed, the consequence would be that even motion would be taken away from things, and so would all movable things. [6] Again, just as things devoid of understanding tend toward God as an end, by way of assimilation, so intellectual substances do so by way of cognition, as is evident from the foregoing. Yet there must remain the good which is the subject of evil. [10] Besides, for all the powers capable of reflection on their own acts, the act of such a power must first be brought to bear on some other object, and then directed to its own act. [6] Furthermore, for every agent the principle of its action is either its nature or its intellect. And this is rather the way in which the good is said to be diminished by evil. Actions that are done without attention do not stem from the intellect but from some sudden act of imagination or from a natural source. But it is possible for even evil men to be honored. For, primarily Ad directly, the intellect moves the will; indeed, the will, as such, is moved by its object which is the known good. Now, singulars are beings, and more so than universals, for universals do not subsist of themselves, but are only in singulars. Yet he asserted that, in our present state of life, we are able to understand separate substances. So, praise is not given to him who has already attained the ultimate end, but honor, as the Philosopher says in Ethics I [12: 1101b 24]. Thus Dionysius says that, as a result of this name of theirs, there is a suggestion of “their mobility in relation to the divine, a fervent and flexible mobility, and of their leading of lower things to God,” as to their end. [2] For the knowledge that pertains to art is also practical knowledge. This is evident in both speculative and active sciences; for a speculative science which derives its principles of demonstration from another science is said to be subalternated to that other; and an active science which is nearer the end, which is the principle in matters of operation, is architectonic in regard to a more distant one. Indeed, in all moral contraries, either both contraries are evil, as in the case of prodigality and illiberality, or one is good and the other evil, as in the case of liberality and illiberality. For instance, certain things are more or less hot depending on whether they are more or less near to fire, which is the highest type of hot thing. Now, the good that can be decreased by evil must be finite, for the infinite good does not admit of evil, as we showed in Book One [39]. Now, this cause is God, either mediately or immediately. Chapter 41 First, in regard to those things which God can make but has not made, nor will ever make. Therefore, evil should not be totally excluded from things by divine providence. ARGUMENTS WHICH SEEM TO PROVE THAT EVIL IS NOT APART FROM INTENTION And it is also within its power for reason to make an actual consideration, or to abstain from such a consideration, or further to consider this or that alternative. But, in this process of division, that which is subtracted later must always be quantitatively diminished. Therefore, his felicity would not be the ultimate end unless it endured perpetually. That God's providence applies to contingent singulars, Chapter 76. Instead, just as God is an agent only, so is corporeal substance passive only, for it is the lowest in the genus of things. [6] Again, we have shown above, concerning the agent intellect, that it is not a separate substance, but a part of the soul, to which Aristotle assigns this operation: “to make things actually understood” [De anima III, 5: 430a 14], and this lies within our power. Now, good and evil are contraries. And this is the second point on which the first and second opinions differ. [10] Thirdly, we may consider the point in regard to those things which depend on the will of God alone: for instance, predestination, election, justification, and other similar things which pertain to the sanctification of the creature. So, not even the fact that we will know all the objects of speculative understanding will make it necessary for the agent intellect to become a form for us, in such a perfect way that we may understand separate substances through it. A person is not rightly honored unless it be because of some other good that is present in him. Therefore, the agent’s desire must be directed to some definite thing. For this reason, the Philosopher says, in Ethics I [10: 1100b 5], that “we do not regard the happy man as a sort of chameleon.” Now, in this life there is no certain stability, for to any man, no matter how happy he is reputed to be, illnesses and misfortunes may possibly come, and by them he may be hindered in that operation, whatever it may be, with which felicity is identified. just as the arrow attains its inclination to a definite end from the archer’s act of shooting it, so do natural bodies attain their inclination to natural ends, from natural movers; from which movers they also receive their forms, powers, and motions. So, it is not possible for actions to proceed to infinity. On the other hand, a created thing does not possess its perfection in unity, but in many items, for what is unified in the highest instance is found to be manifold in the lowest things. Examples are playful and contemplative actions, and those that are done without attention, like rubbing one’s beard and the like. Hence, it will endure forever. So, this man is not the cause of a man, except in the sense that he is the cause of a human form coming to be in this matter. [2] He showed, first of all, that it was necessary to hold that the agent intellect is related to principles naturally known to us, either as agent is to instrument, or as form to matter. For other substances, the form does not exhaust the entire potentiality of their matter; consequently, there still remains a potentiality for another form, and in some other portion of matter there remains a potentiality for this sort of form, as is the case in the elements and in things composed of the elements. Nor, indeed, may it cease to see because of a removal of the object, for the object, which is God, is always existing in the same way; nor is He far removed from us, unless by virtue of our removal from Him. Of course, if this defect be natural, then it is always attached to the will, and so the will would always commit a morally bad action when it acts. But, as a matter of fact, this is so because of his own deficiency, either because handdoes not know the circumstances for the individual details, or because handis not able to think out the order for all, by virtue of the effort and length of time that might be needed. So, with a caused evil which is the accidental effect of the good, there must always be some good which is the direct effect of the good as such, and thus this good effect is the foundation of the evil. And then, that which is the perfection of the thing, in so far as it already possesses its species, is its end: as habitation is the end of the house. And these last differ, first of all, from passion and motion, and secondly from action transitively productive of change in exterior matter. So, it owes the fact that it is good and desirable to something else. For instance, the art of navigation, to which the end, that is the use, of a ship pertains, is architectonic and preceptive in relation to the art of shipbuilding. And because there is some due order and harmony for every action, such privation in an action must stand as evil in the unqualified sense. But it pertains to the providence of the governor to preserve perfection in the things governed, and not to decrease it. So, this union must start to exist by means of a change in the created intellect. From the fact, then, that a certain subject has many accidents it follows that it is a being accidentally, because a subject and an accident, and even two accidents of one substance, are a unit and a being accidentally; as in the example of a white man, and of a musical, white being. But the search did not stop until it reached the first cause, for “then do we think that we know perfectly, when we know the first cause.” Therefore, man naturally desires, as his ultimate end, to know the first cause. Yet, even with such equipment, because of the feebleness of its intellectual light, man’s soul is not able to acquire a perfect knowledge of the things that are important to man unless it be helped by higher spirits, for the divine disposition requires this, that lower spirits acquire perfection through the higher ones, as we showed above. But this is impossible. But this is impossible, for these bodies are not capable of generation: for they are not endowed with contrariety, and their motions cannot, be impeded. Chapter 16 THAT TO UNDERSTAND GOD IS THE END OF EVERY INTELLECTUAL SUBSTANCE And Augustine says: “The power of the Creator, and the strength of the Omnipotent and All-sustaining is the cause of the subsistence of every creature. 1-2. The same should be true for all cases of change. Now, riches are chiefly valuable because they can be expended, for this is their use. [1] An intellectual substance has still another kind of knowledge of God. [5] Besides, felicity consists in a perfect operation. As a result, it is also clear that a thing which tends to become the cause of others tends toward the divine likeness, and nonetheless it tends toward its own good. For the power of the lower agent is not adequate to produce this effect of itself, but from the power of the next higher agent; and the power of the next one gets this ability from the power of the next higher one; and thus the power of the highest agent is discovered to be of itself productive of the effect, as an immediate cause. [4] So, according to this theory, we reach the knowledge of separate substances through this knowledge which comes from the phantasms, not in the sense that these phantasms and the things understood through them are means for the knowing of separate substances (as is the case with the speculative sciences, according to the position advanced in the preceding chapter), but, rather, in so far as the intelligible species are certain dispositions within us to the kind of form that the agent intellect is. So, if evil were totally excluded from the whole of things by divine providence, a multitude of good things would have to be, sacrificed. [3] Besides, that toward which a thing tends, while it is beyond the thing, and in which it rests, when it is possessed, is the end for the thing. Therefore, man is the end of the whole order of generation. But this is not the kind of knowledge about God that the philosophers were able to get through demonstrations, because, even when we acquire this knowledge, we still desire to know other things that are not known through this knowledge. [8] Besides, the ultimate end of any maker, as a maker, is himself; we use things made by us for our own sakes, and, if sometimes a man makes a thing for some other purpose, this has reference to his own good, either as useful, delectable, or as a good for its own sake. Hence. So, these bodies must be moved by movers that function through knowing; not through sensitive knowledge, as we showed, but through intellectual knowledge. So, it is not the same thing for any creature to be and to be good without qualification, although each of them is good in so far as it exists. [5] Furthermore, all men admit that felicity is a perfect good; otherwise, it could not satisfy desire. 1:17), so are the blessed united with Him called kings: "They shall reign with Christ" (Apoc. [1] Since the vision of the divine substance is the ultimate end of every intellectual substance, as is evident from what we have said, and since the natural appetite of everything comes to rest when the thing reaches its ultimate end, the natural appetite of an intellectual substance must come to rest completely when it sees the divine substance. The first of these is that of the highest God, Who primarily and above all provides for His own things, that is, for all things spiritual and intellectual, but subsequently for the whole world, as far as genera and species go, and the universal causes which are the celestial bodies. [4] Again, the order that is established by providence among things that are governed arises from the order which the provident agent decides on within his own mind. Now, through its operation, one thing becomes the cause of another. So, God moves all things to their ends, and He does so through His understanding, for we have shown above that He does not act through a necessity of His nature, but through understanding and will. For instance, the larger a hot body is, granting equal intensity of heat, the more is it able to give off heat; and granting equal degree of weight, the bigger a heavy body is, the more rapidly will it be moved by natural motion; that is why it is moved more slowly by unnatural motion. HUMAN FELICITY DOES NOT CONSIST IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD WHICH IS THROUGH FAITH Therefore, it is not the separate species of things, as the Platonists claimed, nor the agent Intelligence, as Avicenna held, that is, the cause of the forms which exist in matter; Tather, it is the individual composed of matter and form. So, we should consider the ultimate end of man to be that whereby be most closely approaches God. So, God is the governor of all things through His providence. So, this final perfection comes to a thing in order that it may exist as the cause of others. [11] Yet, we must not think that He is present in things, in the sense of being combined with them as one of their parts. [17] At this point, then, the answer to the arguments against our view is clear from what we have said. Therefore, God must be simultaneously present in all things, particularly since He continually and always preserves in being those things which He has brought into being from nonbeing, as has been shown. Hence, this must be the end of the intellectual creature, namely, to understand God. Therefore, neither does man’s ultimate felicity lie in this kind of knowledge of God. [4] Moreover, the senses are treasured because of their usefulness, and also because of their knowledge. [6] Furthermore, if a person ceases to see what he formerly saw, this cessation will be either because the power of sight fails him, as when one dies or goes blind, or because handis impeded in some other way, or it will be because he does not wish to see any longer, as when a man turns away his glance from a thing that he formerly saw, or because the object is taken away. Therefore, since every agent and mover tends to the good, evil arises apart from the intention of the agent. But this individual man is the cause, properly speaking, of that individual man. So, if God be only concerned with universals, and if He be entirely negligent of these singulars, then His providence will be foolish and imperfect. For a natural agent does not hand over its own form to another subject, but it reduces the passive subject from potency to act. Therefore, the ultimate end is the first cause of all. Of this it is said in the Psalm (35:9): “They shall be inebriated with the plenty of your house, and you shall make them drink of the torrent of your pleasure.” So, this vision is perfected in a sort of participation in eternity. And so, since there should not be a less noble end for a more noble substance, the end for the human intellect will be God Himself. And this is why men seek to be honored, desiring, as it were, to have a witness to some good feature present in them. So, they desire the knowledge of God more intensely than we do. [5] Besides, no man seems to be blameworthy because of the fact that he lacks felicity; in point of fact, those who lack it, but are tending toward it, are given praise. [4] Moreover, it was shown above that all things are ruled through intellectual substances. But no substance is lower than corporeal substance. Therefore, divine knowledge is the ultimate end of man. Therefore, it does not pertain to divine providence to exclude evil entirely from the things that are governed. Hence the Gloss on Psalm 11:2: “Truths are decayed from among the children of men,” says that: “as from one face there may result many reflections in a mirror, so from one first truth there may result many truths in the minds of men. Therefore, whatever pertains to perfection is to be preserved by providence rather than what pertains to imperfection and deficiency. Hence, it is clear that the things which are moved, or passively worked on only, without actively moving or doing anything, tend to the divine likeness by being perfected within themselves; while the things that actively make and move, by virtue of their character, tend toward the divine likeness by being the causes of others. Chapter 74 [5] Furthermore, nothing finite can fully satisfy intellectual desire. Therefore, God’s providence would be most imperfect if it were to confine itself to universals and not extend as far as singulars. Rather, in so far as it is evil, evil is the privation of good. For instance, one approaches closer to a proper knowledge of man when he knows that he is neither an inanimate, nor an insensitive, being than when one merely knows that he is not inanimate; even though neither of them makes it known what man is. And so, if they are rightly considered, all human functions may be seen to subserve the contemplation of truth. And that is why Aristotle says that “man and the sun generate man” [Physics II, 2: 194b 14]. So, that knowledge of God which, when acquired, leaves no knowledge of a knowable object to be desired is essentially this felicity. [6] Now, we should keep in mind that a thing participates in the likeness of the divine will, through which things are brought into being and preserved, to the extent that it participates in the likeness of divine goodness which is the object of His will. Now, a celestial body, considered in its substance, is found to be indifferently related to every place, just as prime matter is to every form, as we said before. Therefore, it is not possible for man’s ultimate felicity to be in this life. Thus, a real man differs from a painting of a man by virtue of the things that constitute the substance of man. However, what a volitional agent wills cannot be known through a knowledge of his substance, for the will does not incline to its object in a purely natural way; this is why the will and nature are said to be two active principles. [8] Hence it is said: “God created, that all things might be” (Wis. 1:14). Now, this man exists because human nature is present in this matter, which is the principle of individuation. [2] Now, it cannot be said that it understands what it is, through itself. [2] Again, intellect is better than sense. For this reason the Apostle says, in 2 Corinthians (5:6-7), that “while we are in the body we walk by faith and we are absent from the Lord.” Yet God is brought into the presence of love through faith, since the believer assents to God voluntarily, according to what is said in Ephesians (3:17): “that Christ may dwell by faith in our hearts.” Therefore, it is not possible for ultimate human felicity to consist in the knowledge of faith. A third way is such that the very likeness of the cause, in its effect, is the form by which the effect knows its own cause. 9:5). But, granted this variety of causes, one of them must at times run into another cause and be impeded, or assisted, by it in the production of its effect. Therefore, its loss holds the greatest prospect of sorrow. [1] As a consequence, it is evident that there cannot be any highest evil which would be the first source of all evils. Chapter 82 For instance, the natural motion of heavy and light things results from their form, depending on whether they are heavy or light, and so the cause of their motion is said to be the generating agent that has given them the form. Chapter 58 In this text it appears that, starting with Thrones and going downward, he placed under them the Dominations, under them the Principalities, and under these the Powers. Certainly, I do not see it in you, nor you in me, but both in that immutable truth which is above our minds. [1] From this it is manifest that no lower agents give being except in so far as they act by divine power. Nor, in fact, is even the lowest body prevented from. Therefore, they are not of themselves the good for man. 13:1). 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