The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Company’s rule. It is also referred to as “First war of Independence”but ended up in a failure. The physical and the metaphysical, the secular and the religious, were all parts of the same nature. Thus, for the British the Revolt of 1857 was an important incident. There was discrimination not only in the lower level, it prevailed in every level of the economy. wars, that the British were the chosen race to rule the world and bring about the western civilizations to the back. At places, they criticized other religions in order to establish the greatness of their own to the orthodox people, the missionary activities appeared very dangerous. The sepoys were the defenders of the Empire. The traders were also paid less. But soon it became widespread and involved the masses. This belief of possessing supreme authority is what led British to conquer its remaining colonies, one of which was the great India. To loads that cartridge in the gun, the soldier was required to use his teeth to tear of one end of the cartridge. 4. In the mean time, the Western education began to spread. The orthodox thought that by the rapid spread of English education, the fabrics of the traditional Indian society should break. The Revolt Of 1857. The Mutiny, Indies was unsuccessful due to Portuguese and Dutch control over the spice trade. She became restless with a spirit of vengeance. They one by one became victims of British expansionism 4… There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the Revolt. Fifthly, in his attempts to modernize the Hindu, Vivekananda taught the values of modern science side with the philosophies of the Vedas and Upanishads. There was no promotion for them to higher ranks. They forced the sepoys to use the cartridge. Their judicial system were also costly for the Indians in that time. 1857 revolt was not only a outcome of religious interference but it was a last nail in the coffin. It is true that it was India’s actual or official rebel against the prevailing British Raj it is also true that the revolt was not formed because of one single factor, many small but significant factors led to the Revolt of the 1857. They were interested to drain the resources of the nation. It became the immediate cause of the great uprising. Thus, there was going only a silent mental hostility between the conservatives and the progressives in the Indian society. As the British maintained a racial hatred towards the Indian soldiers, the latter also developed the same kind of hatred towards their officers. As the sepoy army raised the banner of revolt, the princes and the people joined their hands with them. in 1849, Revolt of the Santhals (1855-56), Kol uprising (1831-32) etc. That being so, man should concern himself with living and livelihood as much as with the realization of divinity. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. Their future appeared uncertain. 3. Quit India Movement (Second World War and consequences) Following are the Political causes of failure of 1857 mutiny. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. They wanted changes and reforms. That blind belief made the sepoys defiant and disloyal. Introduced by Lord Dalhousie. Shift from traders to Lords But at the time of Dalhousie, the converts were given that right by law. The rulers of India fell one by one before the might of the Western arms. India as a region has known foreign invaders more frequently than any other region in world history. Almost from the beginning of the British rule, the Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. Privacy Policy The abolition of the Sati system led some people to complain that the Government had no right to interfere with the Hindu social customs. Our God is the cooking –pot, our religion is: do not touch me, I am holy,” said Vivekananda while criticizing the Hindus. CAUSES OF REVOLT. It erupted on 10th July 1806 in Vellore, present-day Tamil Nadu, and lasted only for a day, but it was brutal and it was the first major mutiny by the Indian sepoys in the East India Company. Finally, Vivekananda drew the attention of Indian people towards the values of Western ways of life. The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. Arrival of East India Co in India The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. Formation of Indian National Congress Any discussion on the reasons behind the Indian mutiny needs to be preceded by what the mutiny actually was. In fact, multiple causes i.e., social-religious-political- economic worked together to produce the rebellion. The Belur Math near Calcutta became the center of the Ramakrishna Mission. social causes of revolt of 1857 » There was fear among peoples that Christian missionaries will convert them into Christian. Vivekananda wanted to see Hinduism in its real form. Socio-Religious Causes of 1857 Revolt Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. In those days the higher caste Hindus believed that to cross the sea was to lose religion. At once, a rumor spread among the sepoys that the cartridge contained the fat of cows and pigs. All these factors create feelings of discontent among India. The British Government abolished the rights of the landlords at many places in northern India. The revolt of 1857 witnessed in large parts of North and Central India was an armed rebellion triggered due to number of political and economic policies of British. TOS This came as a shock for the British and as an inspiration for the Indians. 1. By teaching him his worth Vivekananda established him as a nobler individual. More was the exploitation, greater became the poverty. revolt of 1857 in india causes leaders sepoy mutiny indian rebellion. Many changes began to appear thereby. The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. It is my purpose to discover why this was. During the administration of Dalhousie, nearly 20 thousand lands–holders of the Deccan lost their lands. At many places, the British revenue system proved very hard for the common people. When Dalhousie left in 1856, there were only 45 thousands English soldiers in India. But it was not simply a revolt of sepoys. Causes of Revolt of 1857 3. were among the high degree of protests by the people that culminated in the revolt of 1857. Content Guidelines Some notable persons of those houses worked secretly against the foreigners. Indians as a nation suffered from inferiority complex. Divide and Rule (Partition of Bengal) The Indian Sepoy were underpaid whereas their European counterpart were not. During the period between 1820 and 1856 East India Company acting on the behalf of the British government had been actively maintaining a number of reforms and policies in India. 2. This essay will analyse all these causes in a more detailed way (From lectures, What Are The Four Major Developmental Theories, Literature Review: Layout And Ambiance Of A Department Store, What Are The Four Major Theories Of Development. However, recent researches have proved that the cartridge was not the only cause for this revolt. When the British conquered a kingdom, the ministers, courtiers, officers and soldiers of that state lost their jobs. There was a clear lack of unity among the rebels and there was no common purpose among them during the revolt of 1857. That fear made them unhappy. It drew its strength from several elements of discontent against British rule. Majumdar considers it as neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence. At last, the discontent culminated in a revolt. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. The policy of the British Government was to exploit the wealth of India. In 1857, there fell a centenary of the Battle of Plassey, fought in 1757. Although it is exaggeration, it laid the seeds for Indian nationalism. Origin of the Mutiny . The incident of the Enfield rifle signaled for a military revolt. It started as the uprising of the soldiers of the Bengal Presidency Army that aimed to expel the British rule from the territory of India. The time of the Lord William Bentinck saw several society reformers. To the orthodox people, those reforms were unwanted. The cartridge for that gun contained some animal fat only it. To use it by mouth was to taste the objectionable fat. During that period, the British Empire saw its rise and completion. His approach was radical. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to quite a number of elements which are referred to below: 1. yet much less than a first war of Independence. Jallianwala Baug Massacre Side by side, he preached the message of a spiritual unity. Apart from these reasons some others … When the British army could not show meritorious performance in the Crimean War, the Indian sepoys lost regard for them as good fighters. The, INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE The immediate cause of the revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle and the greased cartridge. Lack of Societal Alternative It should be rational, reasonable, necessary and practical. BA0130056 Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. Sen describes it as "having begun as a fight for religion but ended as a war of independence." British expansionist policies, most of Raja’s, Nawab’s and zamindar’s, were either dispossessed or became subsidiary to the British 2. The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. (ii) The people of India did not like the activites of Christian missionaries. The British conquest of India was followed by Western influences on the Indian society. Causes. The religious sentiments of Muslims and Hindus were greatly hurt by such stories. Since the greased cartridge contained the animal fat, as the name suggested, the fat came from all types of animals, cows and pigs included. The Causes Of The Rebellion. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration. Evangelicals, for example, saw the improvement in India through Christianity and conversion of the Indian people to it. That is to say, for each English soldier, there were five Indians sepoys. The sepoys also came to believe that in no way was an English soldier superior to an Indian sepoy in fighting qualities. Revolt of 1857 “Our religion is in the Kitchen. In that year there were a series of uprising which were known by British historians as ‘the Indian mutiny’ and by Indian historians as ‘The War of Independence’ these different names for the same event show how history can be a matter of interpretation. For the first time, the English brought to India a new type of rifle known as the Enfield rifle. Because, as he believed, every man wanted some spiritual spark to conduct his own activities. Revolt of 1857 was a happened due to following reasons. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. Those were the days of foreign domination. :- 03 2. From power and position, they fell to ordinary condition. They spread discontent against the British among the common people. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … These of the adopted sons of the dead rulers who lost their thrones or pensions became the sworn enemies of British. To the generations to follow, he remained a symbol of India’s spiritual greatness, and a source of national inspiration. As a result of all such things the economic discontent of the people increased. The Government permitted the missionaries to come for England without any restriction. The East India Company had the unusual distinction of ruling an entire country, The Natchez District where a tribe of Indians were housed as slaves was the first Mississippi region where plantations were established. He said: “I shall go to the Mosque of a Mohammedian; I shall enter the Christian’s Church and kneel before the Crucifix; I shall enter the Buddhistic temple, where I shall take refuge in Buddha and his law. From Siraj-ud-Daulah, who became their first victim, they defeated ruler after ruler and annexed their kingdoms. That led to much discontent. He wanted to make the Hindu modern. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. Thus, the territorial greed of the British and the reaction of the Indian princes against that aggression was the political cause of the Revolt of 1857. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. 1. In 1902, at the age of 39, Vivekananda died. Otherwise, there could be no good work in life. Further more, he preached in favour of cosmopolitanism and Catholicism. Thus, there developed a religious grievance against the British rule. Causes of Revolt of 1857 3. While mutinies and revolts were not uncommon in India at this time, they were usually largely uncoordinated. Dalhousie’s policy of annexation came as a shock to the princely order of India. It made the sepoys furious. Their arrogant and insolent manners, rough languages and contempous behavior displeased the sepoys. At last, Dalhousie wanted to finish them, too. Revolt of 1857 – Causes . The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. Their Crime -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges. Title: THE REVOLT OF 1857 1 THE REVOLT OF 1857 2 THE GREAT REVOLT THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 3 (No Transcript) 4 Mangal Pandey 5 THE OUT BURST. However, in sum total the ‘organizational’ factor was the principal cause of the deep British-Indian divide which led to the events which erupted like a volcano in 1857. Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. Vivekananda taught many things to his countrymen. Utilitarian saw the improvement in India through the maintaining good policies. However, there were also many other causes that in sum resulted in the Rebellion of 1857. Their number, thus; grew considerably. Economic cause: The Great Revolt of 1857 was also an outburst of grievances due to the economic exploitation of the company. They established schools at many places. It was far more than a mutiny…. Such were, in essence the contents of Vivekananda’s message. • Causes: The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time. Also Read: Causes of the Revolt of 1857. 3.1 Lack of Societal Alternative This Revolt was initiated by the sepoys of the company, so it has been commonly termed as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. In brief the sepoys lost their respect and fear for the British army. Yes, a rifle led to the need for a revolt! Their economic misfortune made them the enemies of the new rulers. The discontent arising out of political, economic, social, religious and military factors at last culminated in the most memorable bloodbath in Modern Indian History. What Was The Revolt Of 1857 Essay 1046 Words | 5 Pages. James Lancaster was one of the few to return from the voyage. Political causes: The Doctrine of Lapse which was introduced by the British stated that any kingdom of India which did not have its natural heir the kingdom would pass on to the hands of the British. ….Stanley Wolpert . The slaves shipped here came with a militant spirit after being harbored amongst the torturous vessels. The rumor spread that the British rule were destined to last for a hundred years only , and as such , it should end in 1857. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. Gradually, their activities began to increase. As a result, the Indian … A brief account of those causes given below: Since the Battle of Plassey, the English conquered territory after territory to extend their Empire. Sixthly, from some unknown source, there spread belief among the Indian sepoys that the British rule was coming in close. The whites also started interfering in the religious and cultural affairs of Indians and … What was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857? The revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. Vivekananda visited the West again in 1899. That alarmed the Hindu sepoys in general, and the Jats and Rajputs sepoys in particularity were afraid that they would lose their caste while their families in remote villages would suffer social boycott. One of the well-known incidents of the Mutiny was in the town of Cawnpore where, The main cause of the rebellion is considered to be the East India Company’s exploitative and oppressive policies towards the Indian native soldiers – Sepoy. The causes for the Revolt of 1857 or First War of Independence were: 1. Copyright. Higher philosophies were the monopoly of the learned. The British also possessed almost unlimited supplies of modern artillery to quickly suppress the 1857 Revolt. To him, religion should not mean blind faith or absurd practices. Political, social, economic, military and other factors contributed to the making of the Revolt of 1857. When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling the episode of the greased cartridges provided … Administrative causes of the revolt of 1857 Resentment against a new administrative system. Vivekananda tried to remove that feeling. Political Causes . Religious causes 4. A) Heavy taxation B) But down on major patronage for artisans and handicrafts C) increasing availability of market for Indian cotton. In addition, different fractions of people wanted to improve India in different ways. They were ordered not to do so, but to use the military caps instead. Dalhousie had even desire to drive out the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II from Delhi in order to extinguish the Mughal dynasty. It was the first organized revolt against British rule in India. It was the most remarkable single event in the history of India after the establishment of British Rule. The military caps contained leather strip, which the orthodox sepoys did not like. Write an article on the early career of Mahatma Gandhi, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. So they wanted freedom from the British rule. The Revolt of 1857 also regarded as India’s Ist War of Independence was a significant event in Indian history. Answer. The sepoys belonging to higher castes used to put Tilok on their foreheads as their religious marks. The revolt of 1857, popularly known as "The First War of Independence", burst due to many reasons. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). Our mission is to liberate knowledge. The poor peasants also did not gain any economic benefit from the British rule. Thus, the territorial greed of the British and the reaction of the Indian princes against that aggression was the political cause of the Revolt of 1857. (i) The people felt that the British were destroying those socio-religious customs which were sacred to the Indians. The revolt of 1857 was formed due to several reasons like- the economical domination of foreigners, lost freedom of Indians etc. That in a sense became the social cause of the revolt. Indian people began the uprising because they were cruelly exploited by the British colonialists. Thirdly, the sepoys were paid very small amounts as their pay. It is believed by many historians that Lord Dalhousie laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, they could not prove it. Political cause: Nana sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. The spiritual vitality of India, according to him, was too strong to overcome all temporary set-backs. But, for several reasons the sepoys become disloyal and angry. Therefore, some of the royal houses, both Hindu and Muslim, got involved in anti-British activities. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. The British wanted to destroy their religions through the greased cartridge. In view of that proportion, the sepoys lost fear of the British soldiers. Rise of Indian Nationalism It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. Given below are the chief causes of the 1857 War of Independence : The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. On 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled. Causes. They should be viewed together. It meant the loss of religion by the Hindus and Muslims alike. This was … REVOLT OF 1857 & THE INDIAN COUNCILS ACT, 1861 SHREYA MENON BA0130056 TAMIL NADU NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL TIRUCHIRAPPALLI SUBMITED TO PROF. ANSHUMAN SINGH The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Company’s rule. To the religious Hindu, crossing the sea meant loss of caste.The sepoys, therefore, refused to comply. 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