Physical & Chemical Factors that Control Biological Activity in the Soil Texture. Climate: The greater the rainfall amount, the more rapid the rate of erosion and leaching. The reduction of soil nutrients because of alkalinity or acidity of waterlogging are all grouped under the chemical components of soil degradation. Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent Material, Time, Climate, Relief, and Organisms. Change in phase (mineral type) and composition are due to the action of chemical agents. This water seepage is what dissolves rocks into soil. Biological factors which affect the micro-flora and reduce the microbial activity of the soil. Soil composition, or the amount and types of minerals in any soil, is determined by multiple factors. The soil degradation causes of natural as well as human being, but human being causes are more effective on soil degradation. These factors reduce the yield. and developmen t (Lee et al., 20 08). ... Factors in Soil Formation. Soil Biology Organic matter Carbon Density weight / volume pore space Chemical Properties of Soil e. Chemical Properties of Soil - endless cycles Sulfur cycle Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle. The second category consists of abiotic factors, which include all nonliving things—for example, minerals, water, and air. As water seeps downwards, it breaks down material. Modi ed soil erodibility factor, K, for Peninsular . Justus Von Liebig’s Law of the Minimum: A plant’s yield is limited by the most limited nutrient. Parent material: It refers to the mineral material or organic material from which the soil is formed. Chemical weathering - process by which the internal structure of a mineral is altered by the addition or removal of elements. The soils will carry the characteristics of its parent material such as color, texture, structure, mineral composition, and so on. Soil chemistry can be considered as the natural chemical composition of a given soil. Soil texture is defined as the distribution of sand (0.05-2.0 mm), silt (0.002-0.05mm), and clay ( < 0.002mm) in soil. Chemical factors e.g. This natural chemical composition of a soil is a function of that soil’s parent material. These soil components fall into two categories. ... the physical and chemical soil properties, hence contr ibuting healthier plant growth . ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. The type of rock the soil originated from, topographic features of an area, climate, time and human activity are the five major factors that affect soil composition. Both mechanical and chemical weathering play an important role in soil formation. In the broadest sense, it comprises alterations in the soil’s chemical property that find out nutrient availability. Soil texture indirectly influences properties such as: water holding capacity, porosity, aeration and nutrient availability. Soil Chemical Properties a. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) ... Factors that affect soil pH include parent material, vegetation, and climate. Chemical factors. soil - (i) The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. Some rocks and sediments produce soils that are more acidic than others: quartz-rich sandstone is acidic; limestone is alkaline. In the first category are biotic factors—all the living and once-living things in soil, such as plants and insects. Soil contains air, water, and minerals as well as plant and animal matter, both living and dead. These processes will transform that boulder into particles of sands, silt and clays. In many areas of the world soil is formed in place and derived directly from the weathering and degradation of rocks. depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or water logging. Soil formation is due to the percolation of water and weathering. 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