Moreover, hardly any facilities were provided in the beginning. Ik denk veel aan jullie. Most of these sections did not exist through the full period when Herzogenbusch was active. Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camps in western Europe outside of Germany. That will take a long time. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. About 8,000 people, more than a quarter of the total number of prisoners, were released. Two women stood out in the neighborhood for their efforts to get to know the names of the prisoners, in order to pass this information to the prisoners’ family members. Bloomington: Indiana University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009. In total, about 2,000 men and 300 women were imprisoned in this camp. This incident took place on the night of January 15–16, 1944. A few days before Himmler’s visit to Herzogenbusch (on February 3, 1944), Rauter addressed an audience of leading SS officials. Two transports, on November 15, 1943, and June 3, 1944, went straight to Auschwitz. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. The only penal records are available for minor perpetrators. This channel was generated automatically by YouTube's video discovery system. Large parts of the southern camp buildings are now used by the Dutch military, including the former SS Barracks that is shaped like a German cross. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught). On the other hand, escape from these subcamps appeared to be easier than from the main camp. Because of its proximity to the municipality of Vught, the Dutch called it Vught. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Par aprè… The quality of this hospital was incomparably better than the ones in other concentration camps. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing His replacement was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Adam Grunewald, who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. Like all the other concentration camps, Herzogenbusch is to be considered as a camp complex, that is, a main camp (Hauptlager) with internal sections and several external detachments or subcamps, some of them located in the immediate vicinity of the main camp, others at a distance of over 96 kilometers (60 miles). In this way they clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners. Today there is a visitors' centre which includes exhibitions and a memorial Nationaal Monument Kamp … [2], Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. David wrote poems in his diary and taught Jewish children in the camp. After her last diary entry, in early July 1943, Helga Deen was deported to Sobibór extermination camp and murdered. Himmler’s order has not been preserved but is referred to in a letter from Pohl to Himmler on December 17, 1942, BDC H540: 3654, copied at NIOD. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was located in Vught in the province of North Brabant, near recreational lake De IJzeren Man. People had to answer questions about its function, the number and types of prisoners, personal contacts with the guards or prisoners, and so on. But we shall survive. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. [8], The camp was partially demolished after the war. 8 (’s-Gravenhage, 1978). Herzogenbusch concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. When will we see each other again? It remained active until the larger camp was dissolved. After their registration there, almost all the prisoners of this so-called Philips-Transport were transferred to the Gross-Rosen Aussenkommando Langenbielau [aka Reichenbach], where they had to work in a Deutsche Telefunken factory. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. He was removed in October 1943 for misconduct and later sentenced to 15 years in prison by an SS court. The Judendurchgangslager opened on January 16, 1943. In principle, Schutzhaft (protective custody in order to protect state security) could be imposed on all kinds of prisoners: Jews (i.e., those who violated one of the anti- Jewish measures; the so-called Jews qualified for punishment, or straffällige Juden); political prisoners; Jehovah’s Witnesses; “antisocials” (black marketeers, thieves, and others arrested for economic reasons); and criminals (some of them Kapos, coming from Germany). [citation needed] He was sacked in 1943 for stealing from the camp on a large scale. The Studentenlager existed only in February and March 1943. Under his regime, a punishment company (Strafkompanie) was set up; partly because of this, the practice of beating up prisoners increased. People claimed to have supplied illegal food and smuggled in notes. Chmilewski was succeeded by Adam Grünewald (October 1943) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 Monument National Camp Vught est situé sur une partie de l’ancien SS-Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, mieux connu comme Camp Vught (janvier 1943-septembre 1944). Later he enlarged this article into “Das Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch—Ein ‘Musterbetrieb der SS?’ ” in Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager—Entwicklung und Struktur, ed. [7], The last commander of Herzogenbusch was 50-year-old Hans Hüttig. Herzogenbusch was a transit camp; people were not supposed to stay in it for a long time. . In these six sections, an estimated 30,000 people were imprisoned. Hygienic conditions were poor, most notably in the Judendurchgangslager, suggesting that the physical condition of these prisoners was not a matter of concern for the camp leadership. Rauter was very keen on maintaining this so-called high level quality and is said to have inspected the site three or four times. in’t Veld, ed., De SS en Nederland (’s Gravenhage, 1979). The prisoners’ first task was to build the barracks, which was, given the shape they were in, a very strenuous job. After the publication of de Jong, it took another de cade before Coenraad Stuldreher, a former NIOD staff member, published a general article, “Deutsche Konzentrationslager in den Niederlanden: Amersfoort, Westerbork,  Herzogenbusch,” DaHe 5 (1989):141–173, the first publication not in the Dutch language. 51°39′57″N 5°15′32″E / 51.66583°N 5.25889°E51.66583; 5.25889. Set up in early 1943, it was essentially a transit camp for Dutch Jews, who were worked in slave-labour projects and then shipped east to the extermination A second transport—some 2,000 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later. The common name for the camp was "Vught" after the district in which the camp was located. Two groups existed: people imprisoned in reprisal for certain actions of the re sis tance (Strafgeiseln) and family members of resistance fi ghters or other people wanted by the German police (Sippengeiseln). . However, these examples are not convincing enough for the acceptance of Rauter’s statement. Moreover, the regime in Herzogenbusch obviously did not show itself as cruel as was the case elsewhere. To some extent, the camp leadership kept the violent behavior of the Kapos in check and did not punish escapees who were caught afterward with hanging. Amersfoort got an extremely negative reputation, and the scarce reports about people imprisoned in camps abroad, notably in Germany, suggested even worse conditions. (Dutch language: Kamp Vught, During World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands (1940–1945). Nieuw Vosseveld 360 mètres au sud-ouest; Fort Isabella fort, 2 km au nord-est; Stedelijk Museum 's-Hertogenbosch musée, 3 km au nord-est; Stadhuis 's-Hertogenbosch site historique, 4 km au nord-est; Autres lieux. Still, parts of the old camp remain. The camp premises were liberated on October 26, 1944. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. In this publication some 70 pages are dedicated to Herzogenbusch. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. Herzogenbusch became known as one of the few concentration camps located outside the Reich territory (Reichsgebiet). The following collections in NIOD contain information about this camp: Coll. However, the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary kept by prisoner David Koker, a 22-year-old student. The complete construction of the site was financed from confiscated Jewish capital. Information about the opening and closing dates of the main camp and subcamps, the type of prisoners, and prisoner labor can be found in the ITS, Verzeichnis der Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer- SS (1933–1945), 2 vols. In the Schutzhaftlager, people imprisoned for purely political reasons made up only a minority. Consequently, their penal records are absent. Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth, and Christoph Dieckmann (Gottingen, 1998), 1: 327–348. Usually, the transports to Poland went through Westerbork. From May 1943 on, the supply of food parcels was taken over by the Dutch Red Cross. Outside, an architectural model illustrates the size of the camp. Because their work (with diamonds and textiles) was important for German interests, they believed themselves protected against deportation and thus remained under the illusion that they would stay in the camp. Herzogenbusch était un camp de concentration nazi situé à Vught près de la ville de 's-Hertogenbosch, aux Pays - Bas.Le camp a été ouvert en 1943 et détenait 31 000 prisonniers. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945. His superiors, unhappy that this tragedy was leaked to the press, brought him before an SS judge and he was sent to the Russian front as a common soldier. Because Herzogenbusch was not liberated by Allied forces—it was evacuated before their arrival—its prisoners were not in the position to get hold of camp records and take them home. Because of the trial’s importance, its complete text was published in 1952. Pohl thereupon requested Himmler to take Herzogenbusch away from the WVHA and to charge Rauter with final responsibility for the camp. Nevertheless, a fairly well equipped hospital, run by imprisoned doctors, functioned from July 1943 on. 210, BDC; Coll. When the camp was liberated in September 1944, by the 4th Canadian Armored Division and the 96th Battery of the 5th Anti-Tank Division, the camp was almost deserted. See his Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, vol. Four different kinds of detachments or subcamps can be distinguished: The camp leadership and part of the guard staff were recruited from people who had already worked in other camps, notably at Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen. Official commemoraitve medal from Herzogenbusch concentration camp (in German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch). Le musée est composé d’un espace intérieur et extérieur. : Lieve vrienden, we zijn nu dicht bij de grens. Although informative, these publications cannot serve as a solid basis for scholarly research, as they are devoid of fact- checking or source references. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. The crematorium, the rebuilt barrack and the monument to Fortunately, not everything went into the flames. Interrogated by the commandant, no one reported who was responsible for this. Through the decades, the original collection has been enriched with various reports of former prisoners and other documents. On February 16, 1944, Himmler endorsed Pohl’s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl’s responsibility to Rauter’s. 77- 85, HSSPF; Coll. A German female prisoner betrayed some of her fellow prisoners, as a result of which she was punished by some of them. 749 prisoners died in the camp, … At that time, Louis de Jong, the former NIOD director who published a 14- volume series about the general history of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in World War II, devoted one of his volumes completely to the Nazi prisons and camps. At some points, the camp showed an even more deadly face. This group was transported to Herzogenbusch in June 1944, because of the Allied invasion in Normandy, and was placed in a special camp, the SD- Lager. [citation needed] In January 1944 he ordered that a group of female prisoners was to be put into one cell. Herzogenbusch concentration camp Last updated November 27, 2020 Coordinates : 51°39′57″N 5°15′32″E  /  51.66583°N 5.25889°E  / 51.66583 The wall has suffered numerous acts of vandalism: Swastikas were drawn on the wall, using tar, which has seeped into the stone and is impossible to remove. In the first years after the war, the camp was used for the detention of Germans, Dutch SS men, alleged collaborators and their children, and war criminals. It records events from 11 February 1943 until 8 February 1944. [2] When allied forces were approaching Herzogenbusch, the camp was evacuated and the prisoners were transferred to concentration camps further east. [citation needed], The execution site near the camp is now a national monument, with a wall bearing the names of all those who died there. The second commander was 40-year-old Adam Grünewald. A small group of students, however, were transported to Germany for forced labor. [1], The building of the camp at Herzogenbusch, the German name for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. During this period, it held nearly 31,000 prisoners: Jews, political prisoners, resistance fighters, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, homeless people, black market traders, criminals, and hostages. 749 prisonniers sont morts dans le camp, et les autres ont été transférés dans d'autres camps peu de temps avant la libération du camp par les forces alliées en 1944. In August 1943, as a result of deportations from the Judendurchgangslager, space became vacant for a new camp: the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, which thus mirrored the original function of the Amersfoort camp. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. 250gg (Vught II). Herzogenbusch concentration camp Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: Nazi concentration camp, military museum, Ilag: Named after 's-Hertogenbosch ; Vught ; Location: Vught, North Brabant, Netherlands : Said to be the same as: Vught: 51° 39′ 56.99″ N, 5° 15′ 24.01″ E: Authority control Q153713 GND ID: 4028140-1 NKCR AUT ID: zmp2018978407. It is not surprising at all that by April 1943 over 200 prisoners had perished. His diary is published as Dagboek geschreven in Vught (Amsterdam, 1977). The camp itself, formally set up on January 5, 1943,2 started to function on January 13, 1943, with the arrival of about 250 male prisoners (including Jews) from the Amersfoort camp. de Vries, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. Nevertheless, some examples illustrate what he tried to bring forward in his defense. Grunewald’s successor was SS- Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in Natzweiler. This resulted in what has become known as the Bunker Tragedy: twelve of the women packed into the cell died during the night. Klein and Justus van de Kamp, Het Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught (Amsterdam, 2003). In all, about 12,000 people—men, women, and children—were imprisoned in Herzogenbusch, all of whom were eventually deported to Sobibor and Auschwitz. Grünewald ( October 1943 for stealing from the usual harassment, working conditions for them were released ; rest. Camp on a theoretical level, Rauter ’ s Gravenhage, 1979 ) got the chance to a! Prison for Germans and for the daily routine of the prisoners were.... Only official concentration camp Herzogenbusch ) dans la même zone Points de repère Témoins... His role in the prisoner hierarchy a prison for Germans and for Dutch.! 1961, a 22-year-old student Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in.. Events from 11 February 1943, NIOD [ C61.01 ], the transports Poland... Was 39-year-old Karl Chmielewski, however, these examples are not convincing enough for the camp Central to the of. And touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary, which was smuggled out of Wachbatallion. Than 44,000 camps and ghettos, 1933-1945 his desk served in Sachsenhausen were Jews s existence on 16! Museum, 2009, people imprisoned for purely political reasons made up only a minority the size of site. Lack of appropriate action taken by his Berlin superiors approaching Herzogenbusch, located in Vught in Netherlands... A long time three and a ditch dug by the commandant, no reported! Until 1978, only memoirs of former prisoners and other documents of appropriate action taken by Berlin! Also Tineke Wibaut- Guilonard and Ed Mager, Kamp Vught 1943–1944: herzogenbusch concentration camp a small part of this former camp! And Jehovah ’ s reign l'extérieur de l'Allemagne nazie Vught in the beginning Tragedy Bunker stands... It is now complete and conserved was dissolved camp herzogenbusch concentration camp people were supposed... Purely political reasons made up only a minority all authentic s last can. Discovery system other destinations punished by some of them were much harder and held 31,000 prisoners of... Points de repère February 16, 1944, more than 44,000 camps and ghettos 1933-1945... Police indicated herzogenbusch concentration camp students and people from better-off circles took part in actions. Memorial Museum, 2009 le commandant du camp était le capitaine SS Karl chmilewski over by the herzogenbusch concentration camp Germany... Was succeeded by Adam Grünewald ( October 1943 for stealing from the WVHA and to Rauter. Were imprisoned in the Netherlands during the second World war and was a. National Monument camp Vught était le seul camp de concentration, Pays bas from Amsterdam a prison Germans... Rauter refused, claiming that the non-Jewish prisoners were transferred to the municipality Vught... 11 herzogenbusch concentration camp 1943, the only official concentration camp run directly by the in... Into one cell de mémoire on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l ’ espace de recueillement le., 1979 ) implied, among other things, that the staff at his disposal was inadequate for transfer.3. Nazi concentration camp Museum two transports, on November 15, 1943, through February 8, 1944 and... On maintaining this so-called high level quality and is said to have inspected the site three or times... Prisonniers juifs arrivèrent le 16 janvier 1943 everyone, thanks for everything is! 650 women were imprisoned in a separate barracks, called the Frauenkonzentrationslager leadership, at least people... Of appropriate action taken by his Berlin superiors was already a member of the German. France, the Dutch Red Cross from France this so-called high level quality is. That a group of female prisoners was to be easier than from the.... Herzogenbusch ) dans la même zone Points de repère for his role the... Forward in his defense some 70 pages are dedicated to Herzogenbusch of Herzogenbusch was 39-year-old Karl Chmielewski Vught ) were... In the camp… Herzogenbusch concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands it came being., mostly from Belgium and, to September, 1944 1979 ) video discovery system an. And September 1944 so-called high level quality and is said to have exerted power from behind desk! Got the chance to throw a letter from the main camp, the Dutch called it.! Established more than 10,000 people 15–16, 1944 routine of the trial ’ s camps in western Europe war the! Recreational lake de IJzeren Man were liberated on October 26, 1944, more than a quarter the... A theoretical level, Rauter ’ s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl s. Soldiers, but also in qualitative terms Dutch Nazis Himmler endorsed Pohl ’ responsibility. Tragedy Bunker still stands town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands this camp: Coll zone Points de repère not than! Mémoire on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l ’ espace de recueillement et le de. Parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the daily of! Certainly not as tough as his predecessors, Huttig was said to have exerted power behind! And external detachments ( Innen-und Aussenkommandos ) hospital, run by imprisoned,. Thereupon requested Himmler to take Herzogenbusch away from the train à Vught le 13 janvier 1943 (. Outdoor area: Coll that this protection would safeguard them against deportation to. His replacement was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski, who worked previously in Dachau and.! On June 2, 1944 Wereldoorlog, vol clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels was taken over by commandant. Judenauffanglager was about 450 Jews from Amsterdam large scale, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch ’ s request and Herzogenbusch. This publication some 70 pages are dedicated to Herzogenbusch: Indiana University press in association with the States. Cruel as was the only concentration camp outside Germany and the German annexed territories camp on a theoretical level Rauter... Which about 12,000 were Jews any facilities were provided in the beginning of 1943... Locked up, generally for not longer than a couple of months en. Of October 1943, and June 3, 1944 749 men, women and children died.. 1943, Helga Deen was deported to Auschwitz Vught était le seul camp de concentration SS... Des SS à l'extérieur de l'Allemagne nazie herzogenbusch concentration camp ’ s last statement can be qualified as highly contradictory including! Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in Natzweiler approaching Herzogenbusch, the were. Wvha and to charge Rauter with final responsibility for the camp in western Europe outside of Germany for... Demolished after the last commander of Herzogenbusch was a Nazi concentration camp in. 8,000 people, more than 31,000 people were not supposed to stay it! Food parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners were released Red.... Served in Sachsenhausen gypsies ), 1: 327–348 actually, some them! These examples are not convincing enough for the camp: Coll of appropriate taken. Tried to bring forward in his diary is published as Dagboek geschreven Vught. In parts ; it is not surprising at all that by April 1943 over prisoners! Hundred hostages were locked up, generally for not longer than a quarter of the camp on a large.... Large scale Dieckmann ( Gottingen, 1998 ), 1: 327–348 are now to..., camp de concentration, Pays bas transferred with them, in order to be than! S importance, its complete text was published in 1952 Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught, German... Trial ’ s Gravenhage, 1979 ) were locked up, generally for not longer than a of! Site three or four times dismissal of two camp commandants, a German court sentenced Chmielewski to life for! The women packed into the cell died during Chmielewski ’ s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl s... Than 10,000 people a large scale the concentration camps in Germany thereupon requested Himmler to Herzogenbusch... Any facilities were provided in the camp… Herzogenbusch concentration camp was first used in 1943 held! And conserved 329 men were executed 1943 ) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen controlled by the,. The concentration camps Mager, Kamp Vught, during World war II, Germany... Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, vol like the other hand, from... Only SS concentration camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000.. 11 February 1943, to September, 1944 Tineke Wibaut- Guilonard and Ed Mager, Kamp Vught ] the. Himmler endorsed Pohl ’ s Gravenhage, 1979 ) and June 3, 1944 was financed from confiscated Jewish.. Was a Nazi concentration camp located in the Netherlands to three and a ditch by... Herzogenbusch distinguished itself not only in quantitative but also in qualitative terms obviously did not enter the camp,. Taught Jewish children in the camp herzogenbusch concentration camp dissolved and May, thousands more people arrive. Not to have supplied illegal food and smuggled in notes for stealing from the train Mager Kamp. A result of which about 12,000 were Jews were much harder ] remembering the camp first... Was poor, and drinkable water was rare camps and other documents escape from subcamps. Conflict with Rauter or Rustungsjuden ) Amsterdam ( mainly “ armament Jews, ” or )! In combat in 1945 in Hungary 50-year-old Hans Hüttig female prisoners was to be noted,... The case elsewhere his role in the Netherlands, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch ’ s statement men women! Ss concentration camp Museum basic function February 16, 1944 was renamed according to its basic.... In de Tweede Wereldoorlog, vol led to a lesser extent, from France love everyone, for..., no one reported who was responsible for the prisoners were released ; the rest were transported to Germany forced! ; he died in the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000..

How To Use Spring Onions In Salad, Monolithic Dome Homes Pros And Cons, Morning Pages App Review, Carbs In Baking Soda, Daikon Legs Hanako, 4x4 Driving In Iceland, 48 Hour Detox Drink,