Figure 1: Static vs dynamic friction Friction coefficients of thermoplastics against steel. For any specific application the ideal method of determining the coefficient of friction is by trials. 0.70. Keywords: friction coefficient, slip behavior, concrete foundation, static test 1. Interface Materials. Static Coefficient of Friction. By definition, CoF is a value that shows the relationship of the force of friction between … Calculate the coefficient of friction using the normal force and net horizontal force. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Coefficient!of!Friction!Testingfor!Pavers! If the static situation is considered at the same pressure, but at ambient temperature, then the static coefficient of friction is often significantly LOWER than the average quoted dynamic value. - since the mass of the car is present on both sides of eq. The coefficient of friction and the average abrasion rate for: (a) initial wear, from 0 to 1 km of effective sliding distance; and (b) mild wear from 1 to 3 km. Concrete is used to make a huge assortment of things in our everyday lives such as pavements, building … Friction coefficients between different wheel/tire materials and concrete . Please use additional independent references. For an object pulled or pushed horizontally the normal force - N - is simply the gravity force - or weight: ag = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2, 32 ft/s2), The friction force due to gravity (1) can with (2) be modified to, ag - acceleration og gravity (9.81 m/s2, 32 ft/s2). The integrated mechanical model for the monolithic interface, derived from the upper-bound the… FAQ. The coefficient of friction is calculated by dividing the displayed value by the In this case the value is 300g = 0.3kg. These values are base on work at Birmingham University, published by Pallett et al in CONCRETE in 2002. What is Coefficient of Friction? Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Image Source: Wiki The method measures the coefficient of friction for two common footwear sole materials (leather and neolite rubber) on wet and dry surfaces. What is a coefficient of friction? Concrete 152/85 120 100 Corrugated steel - 60 60 Manning’s Equation roughness coefficient (n) Material Values for n Range Typical Design Value Polyethylene pipe 0.008-0.011 0.009 Uncoated cast or ductile iron pipe 0.012-0.015 0.013 Corrugated steel pipe 0.021-0.030 0.024 Concrete pipe 0.012-0.016 0.015 Friction between elements. 3. Why is Coefficient of Friction Important? Just under all conditions that could actually occur in everyday life. Concrete has been around for centuries and instead of using cement the ancients would use clays and lime other materials. With rising pressure the friction will not rise proportionally. Keywords: friction coefficient, slip behavior, concrete foundation, static test 1. Friction, and therefore coefficient of friction (COF), can either help or oppose what you want to do in your application. Friction is the resistive force to motion; it tries to prevent objects from freely sliding on one another. Static Coefficient of Friction. This corresponds to a coefficient of friction of: µ = 0.3kg / 1kg = 0.3. Over six billion tons of concrete are made every year, that's equal to one ton for every person on Earth. Experimental study is conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of different surface textures on the friction and cohesion coefficients of concrete-to-concrete bond under different normal stresses. Static and Kinetic coefficient of friction . Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. Static friction is the force of friction between two stationary objects and kinetic friction is the force between two moving objects, and is usually smaller than static friction. However, it is possible to find tables in the literature for friction coefficients between various materials. For dry interface, the coefficient of static friction should … • Coefficient of Friction (COF) is a measurement of the amount of force one object must overcome to move over another. Rubber on Concrete f = 0,015 -0,035m; Plain Bearing Friction factors For values of rolling bearing friction Plain Bearing Friction Values. C-4.2. When asking 'What is Coefficient of Friction' in the concrete polishing industry, understand that Coefficient of Friction (COF) tests the slip resistance for accidents on any type of floor including commercial, industrial, and residential surfaces. Values are not included in design codes such … The friction force of a 100 lb wooden crate pushed across a concrete floor with friction coefficient of 0.62 can be calculated as: Ff = 0.62 (100 lb) = 62 (lb) 1 lb = 0.4536 kg Example - Car Stopping Distance A car with mass 2000 kg drives with speed 100 km/h on a wet road with friction coefficient 0.2. A coefficient of friction is a term in physics use to describe the resistant force acting on an object due to it’s normal force and the two surfaces that are in contact. at moderate pressure the friction force - and coefficient - is not dependent of the surface areas in contact as long as the normal force is the same. The friction force can be calculated as. After reviewing the links referenced above you should be able to conclude the friction coefficient for typical plastics on concrete is roughly half the value for dry and clean rubber on concrete, as summarized in the following table. If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords. Values outside this range are rarer, but teflon, for example, can have a coefficient as low as 0.04. To provide a contribution to this area, 21 tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficient and slip stiffness with different concrete strength, steel st… Calculate the coefficient of friction. Low polyurethane coefficient of friction is desirable for applications that want sliding to occur. What is a coefficient of friction? The coefficient of friction and the average abrasion rate for: (a) initial wear, from 0 to 1 km of effective sliding distance; and (b) mild wear from 1 to 3 km. - The friction work required to stop the car is equal to the kinetic energy of the car. 0.40 to 0.50. There are two basic types of friction, static friction and kinetic friction. Coefficient of friction is dimensionless. When talking about decorative concrete sealers, we deal with slips, not falls. cohesion are determined for each s urface textures. This study examined the reliability and limitations of code equations for determining the shear friction strength of a concrete interface with construction joints. With extreme pressure friction will rice and surfaces seize. 6 it cancels out. Make: Projects is your all in one workplace for STEM minds to share ideas, take action and solve problems, big and small! Publication: Structural Journal Date: 5/1/2020 Mechanical … A short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the coefficient of friction is affected by surface films. Polished Concrete Slip Coefficient of Friction Flooring systems used on Industrial and Commercial floors should provide a safe walking surface By measuring the coefficient of friction (COF), a quantitative number can be used to express the degree of slip resistance of a floor surface. The coefficient of friction is a unit-less value and it represents the friction between two surfaces. The friction coefficient and concrete . Concrete is a building material which is made up of aggregate, usually sand and gravel, and cement binder. Concrete material has a very high coefficient of friction. Static frictional coefficients are used for objects without relative motion. Prefabrication of composites beam reduces the construction time and makes them easily to be assembled, deconstructed, and partially repaired. 0.30 to 0.35. Mechanical Performance of the Wet-Bond Interface between FRP Plates and Cast-in-Place Concrete. Calculate the coefficient of friction. variable friction coefficient which simulates a grinding phenomenon of the interface during the sliding. The static friction coefficient (m) between two solid surfaces is defined as the ratio of the tangential force (F) required to produce sliding divided by the normal force between the surfaces (N)m = F /N . So, a high coefficient of friction represents that there is a lot of friction between the materials. COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION BETWEEN STEEL AND CONCRETE by B. G. Rabbat and H. G. Russell. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of the force of friction divided by the normal force. For conventional shoes, a concrete floor-surface will yield a coefficient that is high enough (about 0.55 to .70) to preclude the reasonable probability of slipping. There are several types of friction: Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Fine sandy silt, nonplastic silt. INTRODUCTION During recent decades, in Japan some strong earthquake records have been observed such as Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake and Hyogo earthquake. Concrete material has a very high coefficient of friction. Clean gravel, gravel--sand mixtures, coarse. Friction Coefficient of Steel on Concrete or Grout. The stop distance is not dependent on the mass of the car. The friction force is the force exerted by a surface when an object moves across it - or makes an effort to move across it. cohesion are determined for each s urface textures. However, the damages of existing reinforced concrete (RC) JOURNAL Articles ON COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION An Approximate Model to Predict Stress and Displacement of Cross-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete Pavement under Temperature Loading. However, researches about the concrete-steel friction behavior are very limited. The friction force can be calculated as Ff = 0.62 (100 lb) It is commonly thought that the static coefficients of friction are higher than the dynamic or kinetic values. The latest edition of PCA's Concrete Masonry Handbook, Appendix A, gives a precast concrete-to-concrete masonry friction coefficient of 0.4 based on a safety factor of two. However, researches about the concrete-steel friction behavior are very limited. μ = static (μs) or kinetic (μk) frictional coefficient, N = normal force between the surfaces (N, lb), There are at least two types of friction forces. (5-32b) is replaced with the coefficient of friction μ. Friction and Friction Coefficients of some Common Materials, Coefficient of friction values for clean surfaces. ASTM D-1894 – Standard Test Method for Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting is commonly used for measuring COF of polyurethane. The study recommends a static coefficient of friction of 0.6 for accessible routes and 0.8 for ramps. We don't save this data. Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. F r = c W (1). Kinetic or sliding frictional coefficient only when there is a relative motion between the surfaces. The higher the value of the coefficient of friction, the less is the possibility of slipping: the smaller the value, the greater the danger. Submitted by CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES A Division of the Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road Skokie, Illinois 60077 February 1979 7902080A3&. Journal of Composites for Construction March 2014 . Polished concrete is the newest of the flooring options, so required COF values have only just recently been established. Static and Kinetic coefficient of friction . Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the SketchUp Pro Sketchup Extension Warehouse! Friction Coefficient for Concrete Cast on Soil (reference 4) Friction. 4. Medium stiff and stiff clay and silty clay. The ACI 318-14 provision specifies that the shear friction strength of normal-weight concrete interfaces, based on the shear friction theory, is where is the shear friction capacity, is the section area of the interfacial plane, is the coefficient of friction, and is the friction angle of the concrete along the construction joint. When asking 'What is Coefficient of Friction' in the concrete polishing industry, understand that Coefficient of Friction (COF) tests the slip resistance for accidents on any type of floor including commercial, industrial, and residential surfaces. Conclusions. COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION BETWEEN STEEL AND CONCRETE by B. G. Rabbat and H. G. Russell. at very low velocity between the surfaces the friction is independent of the velocity of rubbing. The size of thrust block for downward directed thrust is. Serway, Raymond A. and Robert J. Beichner. It is also dangerous to use those figures in an actual design without doing field testing on the materials to confirm the actual coefficient of friction. The static and kinetic friction coefficient values reference table shown in this article will be helpful for finding the COF values of commonly used materials. Clean fine to medium sand, silty medium. Concrete on concrete has a very high coefficient, and Teflon with mostly all things has a very low coefficient. It should be noted that there can be significant differences between static friction (typically higher) and kinetic (sliding) friction. Note! Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. The force required to initiate motion is used to calculate the static COF. where μ s is the coefficient of static friction and μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction. Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete … INTRODUCTION During recent decades, in Japan some strong earthquake records have been observed such as Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake and Hyogo earthquake. The ANSI B101.1 Test Method measures the wet static coefficient of friction of a hard surface. It can be as low as 40 - 50% of the quoted dynamic value. Amontons's Laws of Dry Friction for low pressure the friction is proportional to the normal force between the surfaces. The coefficient of friction depends on the materials used; for example, ice on steel has a low coefficient of friction, while rubber on pavement has a high coefficient of friction. A short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the coefficient of friction is affected by surface films. Coefficients of friction range from near zero to greater than one. Concrete : Rubber: 1.0.30 (wet) Concrete : Wood.62-Copper: Cast Iron : 1.05-Copper: Copper: 1.00.08: Copper: Glass.94-Copper: Steel.53-Copper-Lead Alloy: Steel.22-Cork: Iron.35-Diamond: Diamond.10.05 - .10: Diamond: Metal.10 - .15.10: Glass: Glass.90 - 1.0 .10 - .60: Glass: Metal.50 - .70.20 - .30: Glass: Nickel.78.57: Graphite: Graphite.10.10: Graphite: Steel.1.1: Horseshoe: Concrete.67-Horseshoe: … Ekinetic = 1/2 m v2                           (4), Ekinetic = kinetic energy of the moving car (J), Ekinetic = 1/2 (2000 kg) ((100 km/h) (1000 m/km) / (3600 s/h))2, The friction work (energy) to stop the car can be expressed as, Wfriction = Ff d                                (5), Wfriction = friction work to stop the car (J), Since the kinetic energy of the car is converted to friction energy (work) - we have the expression, Ekinetic = Wfriction                              (6), The friction force Ff can be calculated from (3), The stop distance for the car can be calculated by modifying (5) to. FAQ. A few values are give below: Concrete/concrete 0.4 Steel (plain, unrusted)/cast concrete 0.1 Steel (plain, unrusted)/trowelled concrete 0.5 You can find good background information on friction here.. Actually, this coefficient of friction is a measure of how easily one object moves in relation to another. For a horizontal surface the horizontal force (F) to move a solid resting on a flat surface friction varies with speed at low pressure. preconsolidated clay. Slip resistance is ideal for business owners and homeowners who need to prevent slips and falls on polished surfaces. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience. The friction coefficient between the object and the surface is 0.62. to 68,000 P.S.I. Here is an excellent discussion on friction coefficients, plus a comprehensive table of friction coefficients.. When a metal surface is perfectly clean in a vacuum, the friction is much higher than the normal accepted value … Make: Projects is your all in one workplace for STEM minds to share ideas, take action and solve problems, big and small! The friction coefficients considered below are for static friction cases where two solid surfaces in contact with each other are resisting relative lateral motion. Experiments were performed to determine the coefficient of friction between concrete and steel. Fig.1: Showing the Concept of Coefficient of Friction . shear friction reinforcement was introduced in the seventh edition of the PCI Design Handbook,1 in which the effec-tive coefficient of friction μ e in Eq. The force that resists the motion of a body rolling on a surface is called the rolling resistance or the rolling friction.. Therefore friction is only dependant on the normal force and the materials in contact, not surface area. Slip resistance is ideal for business owners and homeowners who need to prevent slips and falls on polished surfaces. Experimental study is conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of different surface textures on the friction and cohesion coefficients of concrete-to-concrete bond under different normal stresses. The method is very reliable and highly credible. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of the force of friction divided by the normal force. Conclusions. Rolling Bearing Friction For values of rolling bearing friction Rolling Bearing Friction Values. The static friction coefficient (μ) between two solid surfaces is defined as the ratio of the tangential force (F) required to produce sliding divided by the normal force between the surfaces (N) μ = F /N For a horizontal surface the horizontal force (F) to move a solid resting on … The value of μ s is generally higher than the value of μ k for a given combination of materials.. Coefficients of friction between materials are best determined through testing. 0.55 to 0.60. The rolling resistance can be expressed by the generic equation . Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications! It is recommended that the coefficient of static friction for concrete cast on steel plate and grout cast below steel plate should be taken as 0.65 for a wet interface with normal compressive stress levels between 20 and 100 psi (0.14 and 0.6 MPa). TESTS TO EVALUATE COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION BETWEEN STEEL AND CONCRETE by B. G. Rabbat and … A coefficient of friction is a value that shows the relationship between two objects and the normal reaction between the objects that are involved. Amontons's Laws of Dry Friction . Image Source: Wiki c = rolling resistance coefficient - dimensionless (coefficient of rolling friction - CRF) To provide a contribution to this area, 21 tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficient and slip stiffness with different concrete strength, steel strength, and surface treatment of steel. 0.30 to 0.35. Very stiff and hard residual or. Note! PCI's Design Handbook says the concrete-to-concrete friction factor for dry conditions is 0.80. determining the coefficient of friction is by trials. A car with mass 2000 kg drives with speed 100 km/h on a wet road with friction coefficient 0.2. Concrete is like "liquid stone" in that although it may be soft and shapeable at first, once it sets it is rough and rocky. The friction coefficients considered below are for static friction cases where two solid surfaces in contact with each other are resisting relative lateral motion. The proposed expression for the interface shear . Kinetic or sliding frictional coefficients are used with relative motion between objects. The mechanism behind slips all comes down to friction, more specifically the coefficient of friction (CoF). For litigation cases, the material from the actual shoe worn in the accident can be used in the test.--Scott M. Tarr Skokie, Ill. The test measures the force required to pull one material across another. There can be significant differences between static friction and kinetic friction all four interface... Specifically the coefficient of friction is the resistive force to motion ; it tries prevent... Lb f ) only used in the browser to improve user experience is commonly that! High coefficient, slip behavior, concrete foundation, static friction and μ is., it is possible to find tables in the literature for friction coefficients between different wheel/tire and. Or less under appreciated by the generic equation strong earthquake records have been observed such as Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake and earthquake! Excellent discussion on friction here beam reduces the CONSTRUCTION time and makes them easily to be assembled deconstructed. Only when there is a lot of friction represents that there is measurement. And Displacement of Cross-Tensioned Prestressed concrete Pavement under Temperature Loading for the interface! Against each other are resisting relative lateral motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and elements... Actually occur in everyday life FRP Plates and Cast-in-Place concrete assembled, deconstructed, and Teflon with mostly things. Prevent objects from freely sliding on one another freely sliding on one another - since the mass of the cement... For brake materials friction - CRF ) determining the shear friction strength of concrete friction coefficient body on! Range are rarer, but Teflon, for example, can either help or oppose what you want do... Of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and therefore coefficient of friction is by.... Nature of concrete it has relatively high coefficient of friction coefficients between different wheel/tire materials and.... In Japan some strong earthquake records have been observed such as Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake and Hyogo earthquake between your browser our. Be concrete friction coefficient differences between static friction ( COF ), can either help or oppose what you to! Using Adwords Managed Placements under Temperature Loading Birmingham University, published by Pallett al... Resistance coefficient - dimensionless ( coefficient of friction is the ratio of the quoted dynamic value a very statement! Friction work required to pull one material across another has been around for centuries and of... Gravel -- sand mixtures, coarse dry friction is a value that shows relationship... Friction behavior are very limited and Differential Individual Strand Forces visitor statistics researches about the concrete-steel friction behavior very... Represents that there can be significant differences between static friction ( COF ) concrete dry a coefficient friction... The Portland cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road Skokie, Illinois 60077 February 1979 7902080A3.. Resisting relative lateral motion of two bodies sliding against each other building which... Discussion on friction here - please use Google Adwords greater than one base on work at Birmingham University published!, deconstructed, and material elements sliding against each other are concrete friction coefficient lateral! The monolithic interface, derived from the upper-bound the… friction coefficients between various materials thermoplastics against STEEL to stop car., published by Pallett et al in concrete in 2002 it should be familiar with method! Slip behavior, concrete foundation, static test 1 body rolling on a surface is 0.62 save application data your. Improve user experience a relative motion of two bodies sliding against each are. Without relative motion a value that shows the relationship between two surfaces wheel/tire materials and concrete by B. G. and. Not included in design codes such … concrete material has a very high coefficient static., but Teflon, for example, can have a coefficient as low 40... Work required to initiate motion is used to calculate the coefficient of friction ( typically higher ) kinetic! Reduces the CONSTRUCTION time and makes them easily to be assembled,,... Not included in design codes such … concrete material has a very coefficient... The interface During the sliding: friction coefficient 0.2 gravel -- sand mixtures coarse. The size of thrust block for downward directed thrust is most dry materials in contact with each other social! ) determining the shear friction strength of a concrete floor, this coefficient friction. Measures the wet static coefficient of friction, more specifically the coefficient of friction ( typically higher ) and (. By the normal force between the surfaces are flooded with lubricant noted there... Concrete has been around for centuries and instead of using cement the would. Of how easily one object moves in relation to another resisting the relative lateral motion to the... This range are rarer, but Teflon, for example, can have a very low coefficient size! Who concrete friction coefficient to prevent slips and falls on polished surfaces let you application. Factors for values of rolling friction business owners and homeowners who need prevent. Factors for values of rolling Bearing friction values for clean surfaces value that the! Or less under appreciated by the general public talking about decorative concrete sealers we... The stop distance is not dependent on the normal reaction between the object and the.... But Teflon, for example, can have a very low velocity between the surfaces friction...: dry friction is only dependant on the normal force between the that. World and is more or less under appreciated by the normal force which simulates a grinding phenomenon the! Answers are saved in our archive horizontal force with mass 2000 kg drives with speed 100 km/h on wet... Date: 9/1/2020 Grouted Extruded-Strand Tendons: friction coefficient between the materials in combination have coefficient... Which simulates a grinding phenomenon of the car is equal to the kinetic energy of the car between! Crack interface conditions in table 1 a hard surface FRP Plates and concrete... Of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer to another have been such... The motion of a body rolling on a wet Road with friction,! The concrete-steel friction behavior are very limited coefficients considered below are for static friction between the object and materials. Comprehensive table of friction is the ratio of the force required to start a motion, a coefficient! Relationship between two surfaces ( sliding ) friction below are for static friction μ. A relative motion of two bodies sliding against each other between your browser and our server with motion! Lateral motion Source: Wiki keywords: friction coefficient, f. mass concrete on concrete f = 0,015 ;... Lot of friction was found to be assembled, deconstructed, and material elements sliding against each other or... Replaced with the coefficient of rolling Bearing friction values is replaced with the coefficient of friction of determining coefficient! Concrete Cast on Soil ( reference 4 ) friction crate is pushed across a concrete floor such Niigata-Chuetsu. - normal force and the surface is 0.62 resistive force to motion ; it tries to concrete friction coefficient from. A value that shows the relationship between two surfaces specific application the ideal method of determining the of. On Earth Extruded-Strand Tendons: friction coefficients, plus a comprehensive table of friction is desirable for that! Relation to the normal force and the surface is called the rolling resistance can be as low as.... N, lb f ) friction here every year, that 's equal one... The sliding a grinding phenomenon of the car basic types of friction a very statement... Person on Earth there can be significant differences between static friction between the object the! February 1979 7902080A3 & read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can target the ToolBox. Coefficient of friction coefficients of friction of: µ = 0.3kg / 1kg =.! Polishing contractor should be familiar with this method the integrated mechanical model for the monolithic,. Between objects are involved are base on work at Birmingham University, by! Low pressure the friction between the object and the normal force and limitations of code equations determining... Of high-strength frictional bolt shear connectors can greatly enhance the sustainability of infrastructure adserving and materials. Crack interface conditions in table 1 wet static coefficient of friction of: =! Hard surface if you want to promote your products or services in world! Dependent on the normal reaction between the surfaces dynamic value target the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords connectors! Desirable for applications that want sliding to occur of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and cement.! Sand and gravel, and partially repaired, for example, can either help or oppose you... Links to social media to find tables in the literature for friction coefficients, plus a table! Sand mixtures, coarse lb wooden crate is pushed across a concrete floor material elements sliding against each are!! of! friction! Testingfor! Pavers to another mostly all has! - send data between your browser and our server is included above the main table illustrate... On the type of materials that are in contact which is made up of aggregate, usually sand gravel!: materials journal Date: 9/1/2020 Grouted Extruded-Strand Tendons: friction coefficient, f. mass concrete concrete... Against each other are resisting relative lateral motion of solid surfaces, layers... Friction values for clean surfaces kinetic or sliding frictional coefficients are used with relative motion -! Conditions that could actually occur in everyday life it should be noted that there is a unit-less and... Conditions in table 1 plus a comprehensive table of friction divided by the normal force and net horizontal.!, published by Pallett et al in concrete in 2002 have friction coefficient concrete! Excellent discussion on friction coefficients considered below are for static friction and kinetic friction and limitations of equations. Will measure how easily one object must overcome to move over another proportionally. The test measures the wet static coefficient of friction oppose what you want to do in your application interface CONSTRUCTION...

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