This may be particularly important when the students come from a variety of backgrounds, with some having studied aspects of the topic before, either independently or with other teachers in different schools. To be effective as assessment that improves teaching and learning, the information generated from the activity must be used to inform the teacher and/or students in helping to decide what to do next. Indeed, Hein and Price (1994) assert that anything a student does can be used for assessment purposes. These opportunities are part of the natural flow of classroom life, indistinguishable for her and for the students from collecting data, discussing findings, planning next steps, drawing conclusions, and communicating findings about the main concepts they are expected to learn. 0000026342 00000 n In a few cases, the original design was abandoned, and a new design emerged as the instrument took shape. Summative assessments summarize what students have learned at the conclusion of an instructional segment. The. Sharing assessment with students does not mean that teachers transfer all responsibility to the student but rather that assessment is shaped and refined from day to day just as teaching is. 0000001866 00000 n The usefulness of assessment does not stop at teachers collecting information in the course of their teaching and providing feedback. The journal reflections inform her about the progress of the groups and the difficulties they are having, and so serve as a springboard for class discussion. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Assessments that occur as part of regular teaching and curricular activities. After first advising teachers to set clear and appropriate targets—or learning and performance goals—and convey these targets to their students, he stresses the importance of selecting appropriate methods and of taking care to avoid invalidity and bias. When she is not in discussions with students, she mills around the areas where her students work, moving from group to group, sometimes asking questions, sometimes just listening and observing before she joins the next group. The entries also provided the teachers with a mechanism, though not the only one, to gain some insight into the individual student's thinking, understanding, and ability to apply knowledge. For student self- and peer-assessment to be incorporated into regular practice requires cultivation and integration into daily classroom discourse, but the results can be well worth the effort. Many class questions or homework tasks are set in what are assumed to be realistic settings, often on the assumption that this will be more accessible than one set in abstract. Formative assessment requires a close and often personal response. 97 19 Ongoing, formative assessment does not solely rely on a small-group activity structure as in the vignettes. When this mixture also gets hot, he correctly concludes that the “red stuff” only affects the color, and therefore the calcium chloride and water produce the heat. Teachers in effective classrooms communicate with students about what they should be learning and track progress often. 0000001789 00000 n Teachers need to understand the principles of sound assessment and apply those principles as a matter of daily routine practice. In self-assessment students are expected to assess both process and product of their learning. Again, teachers can use various ways to help students develop and cultivate these insights. ���0 Box 3-1 provides definitions for “formative” and “summative,” which pertain to the two main functions that assessment can take. For his second experiment, he removes the phenol red from the original reaction and mixes baking soda, calcium chloride and water. Although they could identify the parts of the model and discuss the importance of “fit,” they did not connect the representative pieces to a nitrogen base, sugar, and a phosphate group. Red symbolizes the student's view that he or she lacks understanding, green that he or she has confidence, and yellow that there appear to be some difficulties and the student is not sure about the quality of the response. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. To the extent that a teacher's decisions and judgments are informed by the information they glean from their students—for example, through observations, class discussions, conversations, written comments, reflections, journals, tests, quizzes, and presentations—teachers can base decisions on understandings of their students and significantly support their learning. The Classroom Assessment Environment: Teachers’ Choice of Assessments and Use of Data ... jdelgado@collegeboard.org 2008 CCSSO National Conference on Student Assessment. ” “What response am I expecting?” “What are the criteria for good work?” “What are the criteria for gauging competency?” These are just a few of the questions that can spur useful analysis. It is not unusual for the goals to change somewhat as the students and teachers get more involved in the study. His class discusses the forces involved with an object resting on a table, including the reasonableness of a table exerting an upward force. They, too, stress that different forms of assessment are better suited for different aspects of knowledge. Each student has an index card on which to write questions or request an opportunity to speak with the teacher rather than to interrupt. Now, consider the assessment in the two vignettes in light of the following three guiding questions: Where are you trying to go? Questions do not need to occur solely in whole-group discussion. The data also are useful when the teachers cover the material again the following year. Student participation becomes a key component of successful assessment strategies at every step: clarifying the target and purpose of assessment, discussing the assessment methods, deliberating about standards for quality work, reflecting on the work. Assessments and assessment-related conversations can help make explicit to all students standards of quality work, make clearer the connections among seemingly unrelated content, concepts, and skills, and provide a scaffold for ongoing student self-assessment (Cole et al., 1999). Throughout the course of a lesson or unit, teachers use classroom assessment … Another starting point for these conversations could be a discussion about exemplary pieces of work, where students need to think about and share the characteristics of the piece of work that makes it “good.”. The data produced from the variety of assessments illustrated in the vignettes are not only useful for the teachers but also as essential tools in helping students to realize where they stand in relation to their goals. The extent to which any assessment data inform teaching and influence learning depends in a large part on use. Administrators also may be interested in the material presented in this chapter. This chapter reviews learning environment research that links measurable dimensions of teaching and classroom environments to student performance, including effective teaching behaviors, classroom management, teacher–student … that red stuff does nothing but change color, √ keeping clear, detailed records of plans, results and conclusions. He makes the astute observation that this reaction is even hotter than the calcium chloride and phenol red solution and correctly concludes that phenol red does not create the heat. Equity issues are difficult to grapple with and arise at all levels of the education system and in all components of any program. The teacher decides that the class will revisit an earlier completed laboratory activity and, in the process, examine the connections between that activity and the discussion at hand. During project work-time, Ms. K conducts conferences with groups of students about their projects. The C.C. Messick states that dropping reliability as a prerequisite for validity may be “feasible in assessment for instructional improvement occurring frequently throughout the course of teaching or in appraisals of extensive portfolios ” (p. 15). According to the Standards, in addition to being developmentally appropriate, “assessment tasks must be set in a variety of contexts, be engaging to students with different interests and experiences, and must not assume the perspective. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? She also is able to note progress that occurs throughout the project, as well as from the last time she engaged in a similar activity with students. Messick 's (1994) use of validity stresses the importance of weighing social consequences: “Test validity and social values are intertwined and that evaluation of intended and unintended consequences of any testing is integral to the validations of test, interpretation and use” (p. 19). Data: Observations of the student performance. Given that goals are clear, the teacher has to help the students achieve greater clarity. Misunderstandings of the task or the context, misconceptions about the nature of the task, or difficulties with the language used, can be brought to light and dealt with, often by students helping one another. With a clearer vision of peer- and self-assessment and adequate time, teachers can get this help from their students and in the process help them to improve the quality of their own work. We'd have to try mixing P.R. Have you ever noticed what the teacher did to make learning more inviting? In this case, classroom teaching is reshaped immediately as a result of assessments made of the students' understanding. One responsibility of the teacher is to use meaningful learning experiences as meaningful assessment experiences. Although any classroom activity can be modified to also serve as an assessment, the data must be fed. Attention to them is part of good teaching. The information will be used to plan the next design activity. A different kind of assessment is necessary, one that is designed to help students get better at inquiring into the world of science (NRC, 2000). They selected three topics that they knew they would be teaching the following year: life cycles, sound, and water. What tools and materials did you use to make your instrument? In discussions of an exemplary piece of work, she encourages the students to become as specific as possible. So the first and hardest part of treating students equitably is to try to treat all students with the same respect and seriousness. In order to evaluate the student performance, the teacher used the following guidelines: Student understanding of sound will be revealed by understanding that the sound is produced in the instrument by the part of the instrument that vibrates (moves rapidly back and forth), that the pitch (how high or how low) can be changed by changing how rapidly the vibrating part moves, and the loudness can be changed by the force (how hard you pluck, tap, or blow the vibrating part) with which the vibrating part is set into motion. One student's familiar setting, for example, a holiday drive in a car, may be uncommon for another family that cannot afford a car, or even a holiday. After considerable research into existing curriculum materials and much discussion, the team decided to build a technology piece into some of the current science studies. The centrality of inquiry in the vision of science education advanced in the Standards provides a particularly compelling reason to take a closer look at classroom assessment, and formative assessment, in particular. CATs and other informal assessment tools … Another group was making drums of various sizes using some thick cardboard tubes and pieces of thin rubber roofing material. Involving students in their own and peer assessment also helps teachers share the responsibility of figuring out where each student is in relation to the goals or target and also in developing a useful plan to help students bridge the gap. Linking assessment … %%EOF These assessments tend to be evaluative, and teachers typically encapsulate and report assessment results as a score or a grade. Furthermore, any materials they needed beyond what was in the boxes had to be materials that were readily available and inexpensive. In the case of one pigeonholed as less “intelligent, ” the student might believe that this is a true judgment and therefore stop trying. By trying to identify their sources of evidence, the teacher better understands where their difficulties arise and can alter their teaching accordingly and lead the students toward better understanding of the concept. What works for Ms. K or Ms. R in their classrooms may not work in another. Assessment Activity: Students demonstrate the products of their design work to their peers and reflect on what the project taught them about the nature of sound and the process of design. It didn't fizz and the bag didn't inflate. With rich assessment data, a teacher can begin to develop possible explanations about what the difficulties might be for the student. they would like their instruments to make, and what kind of instrument it would be. If assessment takes place all the time, a teacher can elicit information that suggests that a previous assessment and judgment was not representative of performance. the development of important dispositions. Explain why people make musical instruments. Ask each student to compile a collection of ten works for you to grade. Box 3-10 shows how teaching standards seek to extend the purview of the teacher. to make heat. She can get a sense of how and where the individuals are making contributions to their group 's work and help to ensure that they share the work at hand, including development of an understanding of the underlying processes and content addressed by the activity. Grades, and even undue praise, can reinforce expectations of failure and lead to reluctance to invest effort. This type of format allows the teacher to hear what the students are learning from the activity and offers other students the opportunity of learning about connections that they might not have made. For years, assessment has been used to sort and place students in such a way that all students do not have access to quality science programs (Darling-Hammond, 1994; Oakes, 1985, 1990). If so, you were lucky to have a teacher who paid close attention to the learning environment, or the When teaching the concept of force in his high school class, Jim Minstrell is aware that although students use terms like “push” and “pull” to describe “force,” the understandings they have for these terms and for the concept of force differs from those shared by scientists (Minstrell, 1992). For many, the designs could not be translated into reality, and much change and trial and error ensued. The students already have completed an activity in which they mixed all three substances. Lee (1994) found that college students … The Standards articulate the breadth and depth of what it means to know and be able to do in science at different grade levels. For frequent whole-group discussions, try a circle or U-shaped desk configuration. Data from summative assessments can be used in a formative way. Most of the assessments here should be given one-on-one. She asked questions that encouraged them to explore possible causes of the burst in algal blooms, and together they devised an experiment that had the potential of providing them with some useful, additional information. It also requires teachers to have notes of concrete examples and situations to help students to perform complex tasks of. For teachers about student comprehension and involvement express how much they already know understand. Teachers about student comprehension and involvement of science knowledge are highlighted in box.! Self-Assessment students are at work can enlighten both teacher and student mean and look different for formative and summative.. 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