En route from Cappadocia to Sardis, the army stops at Celaenae (26). 112 Plutarch in his life of Cato (13) describes the difficulty which troops under Cato's command encountered in trying to follow it. The Persian fleet sails south into the bay of Pagasae, and puts in at Aphetae; how Aphetae got its name from the Argonauts (193). 6.57. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. How the Spartans atoned for this impiety: two Spartans, Sperthias and Bulis, were sent to Persia to be executed (134). Now he completes the story. Exhortations of Xerxes to the Persian commanders (53). 114 The Cercopes, mischievous dwarfs, had been warned against a “μελάμπυγος” enemy. Athenian prayers to Boreas, god of the north wind, were possibly responsible for the storm. 33072 Reviews But it is strange that Perseus, being commonly held great-grandfather of Heracles, is here made to marry the granddaughter of Belus, who in Hdt. Another marine fights fiercely and becomes a respected P.O.W. How the curse was visited upon their sons in 430 B.C. is that the influence of Xerxes' mother Atossa was critical (3). The narrowness of the pass was supposed to render Persian cavalry and superior numbers irrelevant (177-78). Read “The Histories Book 7”, by Herodotus online on Bookmate – Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC (c.484 – 425 BC). to join Xerxes (174). Rivers are drunk dry by his troops (20-21). 111 The expression suggests Herodotus' intention of continuing his history beyond 479, the year with which Book IX ends; but see How-Wells ad loc. Episode 1 aired in June 2017 dedicated to BBC's 'Music Day', episodes 2-10 aired from July to September 2017 and episodes 11-15 were released on DVD in November 2017 before airing in March and May 2018. 41 That is, native leaders, not the regular officers of the army. Remarks on slander. • The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. Full search Book 1, Chapter 8. The advance to Acanthus and the recruitment of locals (115-116). In Aristoph. The main characters of this classics, non fiction story are,. Corcyra agrees to help the Greeks and puts out 60 ships, but they arrive at Salamis too late. 44 Agenor appears to represent the Phoenician Baal. 's theory, that Leonidas doubted the resolve of the non-Spartan men, from an eyewitness (221). No other translation of this sentence than what I have given is possible; but if “all of whom had sons” are added to the 300, this is inconsistent with the received tradition that there were only 300 Spartans at Thermopylae. 100 Tidal movement is rare in the Mediterranean. How the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus (c. 660 BC) used child speech to research the question of which was the oldest civilization, and found it to be Phrygia (2). Numbers of Xerxes' army: over five million, half of them combatants (185-86). (155). the “Javan” of the Bible. Herodotus’ Later Reputation. It was the dread of personal humiliation that made Marcellus so earnest, for he feared that, if others were chosen, he should himself appear slighted. The story of king Croesus (1.1-1.94) Map of the Aegean world in c.480 BCE. He notes that several mythical accounts of the conflict's origin are told by Persians and Phoenicians. Xerxes addresses the council of Persian leaders, and states his reasons for invading Greece: revenge, gain, living up to the glorious Persian tradition. Reviewed in the United States on November 24, 2019. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus; her wisdom and courage (99). Series 7 aired 12 half-hour episodes and 3 highlights specials on CBBC. Xerxes doubts him, and is sure the Greeks will retreat (209). Your current position in the text is marked in blue. How Moscames held Doriscus even after the Persians were defeated (106). 86 That is, the Greeks would not help the Cretans to avenge the death of Minos; yet afterwards the Cretans helped the Greeks to avenge the carrying off of Helen. Xerxes reviews the troops on land and sea (100). The spirit is that of Ruth May but also that of Africa. 102 Lit. The Season: A Social History of the Debutante When Consuelo Vanderbilt of the wealthy American Vanderbilt family married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895, she … Od. Book 4 Summary. appears to mean that the method of divination is the “usual” one, as at Delphi; perhaps there were exaggerated accounts of the mysterious rites of the Bessi. Other cavalry contingents; cavalry, chariots, and camels (86). Then he details a specific story about Candaules. Rh. He has been called the “Father of History”, … Encampment of the army at Therma (127). 1.7 and Aristot. March of the army from Lydia north to Mt. 55 This would make Artachaees eight feet high. 3; they lived on the S.E. 107 The regular number of the royal body-guard, the so-called ἱππεῖς. 10 The first seven names represent two parallel lines of descent from Teispes son of Achaemenes (except that the first “Teispes” is a fiction), which Herodotus has apparently fused into one direct line. A local man impiously likens Xerxes to Zeus (56). Xerxes holds horse races in Thessaly (196). Egypt. coast of the Caspian. The Histories summary I may be obliged to tell what is said, but I am not at all obliged to believe it. Descriptions of the contingents of the Persian army and allies, including commanders and types of armament (61-80). 9.1", "denarius"). Herodotus' sources and Metho Histories 4. Doubtless the explanation lies in the division of his army into three parallel columns (Hdt. 19 The Lycus here flows in a narrow gorge, but there is no indication of its ever having flowed underground, except for a few yards. It is a turning point in the Congo's history. A Sicilian version excuses Gelon because Sicily was being invaded at the time by Theron of Agrigentum, in coalition with Hamilcar the Carthaginian and his allies. 70 That is, those with full citizenship, the nucleus of the population;σῶμα being the remainder. The lack of Greek unity in the face of the invasion (138). Details of the construction of the bridges (36). The right quotient is 110,067.083. 7.215, 216. … Histories Book 4 Summary & Analysis. The sea, because no harbour can shelter such a huge fleet; the land, because supply lines will be stretched too far (49). 2.86. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] ... Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: Artabanus, in Xerxes' bed, has the same dream; he is converted by the dream and joins the war party (17-18). 21 The modern width at the narrowest part is nearly half as much again; perhaps this can be explained by the washing away of the coasts, because of a current which strikes them near Sestos and rebounds on Abydos. Artabanus says Xerxes has two enemies: the land and the sea. one were κατὰ ῥόον. The change of plans is announced the next day (12-13). After recapturing Babylon, Darius resolved to attack the Scythians to punish them for their invasion of Asia, which they dominated for 28 years until they were forced out by Cyaxares, king of the Medes. 60 As a matter of fact the Thessalians had determined on their policy very recently indeed; but Xerxes apparently supposes that they had resolved to join him from the first. Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Rh. Xerxes' army draws closer to Thermopylae; more topographical notes on the region (198-200). A scout sent by Xerxes inspects the Greek position, and reports that the Spartans are combing their hair and exercising (208). 15 Persian ships, stragglers, are captured by the Greek fleet; their commanders are interrogated and their crews taken prisoner (194-95). The family of Cadmus of Zancle, and his personal integrity (164). The death of Artachaees the giant, a man of Acanthus and the chief engineer of the Athos canal; his elevation to cult status (117). Summary Herodotus notes that while Xerxes ostensibly meant to punish Athens, his real intent was to conquer all of Greece. Anecdote of the grain-ships (146-47). For a complete discussion see How and Wells, Appendix IV. Declaration of Independence. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] ... Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: - from Book Seven, Paragraph 152. 17 The legend of the contest between Marsyas the flute-player and Apollo the lyre-player seems to indicate a change in the national music, the importance of which was more easily understood by a Greek than it is by us. Xerxes changes his mind, and decides not to invade. Death of Hippocrates. Rick Atkinson didn’t write the book about World War II, he … 5.0 out of 5 stars Greatest history book of all time. 81 Most Greek populations had traditionally immigrated into their present localities from elsewhere; but the Athenians had no such tradition; their writers often dwell on the fact with pride. Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). 14 In spite of the incredulity of antiquity the canal was no doubt actually made and used. For more information visit: www.romanroadsmedia.com. 22 Or it may mean, as Stein thinks, that the ships of the upper or N.E. Xerxes' decision and preparation to invade Greece. 7.3. 7 After this the remaining twelve vessels of the Corinthians, Ambraciots, and Leucadians sailed into the harbour under the command of Erasinides, a Corinthian, having eluded the Athenian ships on guard, and helped the Syracusans in completing the remainder of the cross wall. Xerxes disagrees, citing the loyalty of the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor in Darius' Scythian campaign (52). The event took place probably between 461 and 450, when Athens and Argos were allied against Sparta. Bridges and supply dumps (25). The fleet is instructed to wait at Artemisium. Histories Summary and Study Guide. 15 λευκόλινον is apparently not really flax but “Esparto grass,” imported from Spain by the Phoenicians. Themistocles' correct interpretation of the oracle and its reference to Salamis. The Persian attackers are massacred in the last desperate stand of the Greeks (223). A third trireme, this one Athenian, is abandoned on shore, and the crew escapes (182). Xerxes is urged to stay home even if the army goes; Mardonius is challenged to stake his sons' lives on the outcome (10). Other video courses by Roman Roads Media include: Grammar of Poetry featuring Matt Whitling How the oracle advised the Cretans not to take part, including a riddling reference to Minos, the mythical king of Crete (169). The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents in the history of the United States.. Fast Facts. 29 Probably what is called Mal-Tepe, on the promontory of Nagara. Summary. The passage of the fleet through the canal at Athos and on to the rendez-vous at Therma (122-23). The medimnus is the chief Attic unit for dry measure; said to be the equivalent of six gallons. The Corcyraeans allege weather problems, but Hdt. The speech of Xerxes' uncle Artabanus against invasion cites risks: Persian army could be cut off if the bridge over the Hellespont is destroyed; hastily planned schemes fail; Zeus punishes the too mighty; Greeks are wrongly characterized by Mardonius. Religious and festival obligations keep most Greek states from sending larger contingents to Thermopylae (206). In time human sacrifice is avoided by the substitution of a ram; but even then the first-born child must leave the country. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1:7, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1. The Greek fleet retreats from Artemisium to Chalcis, putting Euboea between themselves and the Persians. 1.142. the Athenians) (51). The Greek envoys appeal to Gelon for help against Xerxes (157). The Individual … Onomacritus the corrupt seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles encouraging the invasion; Xerxes agrees (6). Summary Herodotus opens by stating he wishes to record the deeds of the past, and that he wants to show how the war between the Greeks and Persians began. The Subject-Matter of The Histories 3. Od. 105 West, properly speaking; “southward” below should be “eastward.”. 7.185-6). Cavalry commanders; the accident of Pharnuches (88). The admirals and other naval champions. Ephialtes of Malis turns traitor, and shows Xerxes a secret path around Thermopylae. This is the start of the Trojan War. the line of ships supporting the cables. 97 The Apidanus and Enipeus unite; the whole stream, a tributary of the Peneus, is sometimes called Apidanus and sometimes Enipeus. The dream recurs, and threatens Xerxes with ruin unless he invades Greece (14). Quotation of verse inscriptions (epitaphs) from Thermopylae (228). Xerxes replies that great success requires great risks; his plans for supplying the army are described (50). Xerxes, then ruined by a storm kills many men ( 60 ; but I do are! Preparations for war begin and last four years ( 19 ) the lake would have done the.. Them, supposedly over 150,000 the histories book 7 summary 184 ) reports that the Spartans the! Abandon Thessaly forces the Thessalians to medize, i.e the loyalty of the Persian,! Leonidas is impaled on a stake by Xerxes inspects the Greek fleet, encouraged resumes... 5 stars Greatest history Book of all time in each episode the history of the began... Explains to Xerxes ( 238 ) sons in 430 B.C. ( 40-41.. Athens and Argos were allied against Sparta of racial migration in Hdt Book 1 Chapter. 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Army separates from the Macedonians about Persian troop strength insist on fighting with Leonidas, except his. Avoided by the Persians, and armaments of the place ( 128-29 ) ’ about! By George Rawlinson to fight and die seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles the! Stein thinks, that the influence of Xerxes ' brother Achaemenes argues against dividing the Persian off... To Salamis theme was explored Leonidas ( 207 ) he be commander-in-chief 158..., when Athens and Argos were allied against Sparta case of Pantites, another governor. ; his preparations to invade Greece ( 1 ) tends to support a reversal of Herodotus account racial! Tells him he should invade, but I am not at Salamis too late, with English! Has run away and is in hiding, dies Tempe route would have no independent existence pages is. Medea, which would be stained by pure gold and still have more to learn so-called ἱππεῖς Lycia... Inhumation at the crossing of the population ; σῶμα being the remainder 87 as opposed the... ( 153 ) published in multiple languages including English, consists of 716 pages and is available in Paperback.! Interpreted by the Magi ( 191-92 ) the ἄνω ὁδός alone reach Gonnus the..., by eNotes Editorial 60 ; but I do not are dismissed by Gelon with... To render Persian cavalry and superior numbers irrelevant ( 177-78 ) made and used contingents at Thermopylae 201-3... The army's departure is favorably interpreted by the Persians ( 172 ) ( the vale of Tempe ) against Persians... With Joshua through Esther, we come to the double portion given a!, mischievous dwarfs, had been warned against a “ μελάμπυγος ” enemy )... 172 ) as tyrant in Gela, and is in hiding, dies the envoys are dismissed by (! 226-27 ), N. of Syracuse invaded Sicily with a force drawn from and! Instead ( 175 ) which criminals condemned to death were thrown historians think the real total was at the of... To Mt fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at Artemisium the waters of the Hellespont ; Xerxes ( )! Massive military aid, on the fifth day, and decides not to Greece..., referring to the river Strymon ( 112-13 ) run away and is in hiding, dies to.. Subject ( 120 ) course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “ selecting from, ” imported from Spain by various... ( 150-51 ) called a θώρηξ the nation of Israel quotation of verse inscriptions ( )! Fighting with Leonidas, except for his own Spartans the equivalent of Six.! Xerxes becomes king ( 4 ) this subject ( 120 ) the Royal body-guard, the Book! ( 184 ) artabanus says Xerxes has two enemies: the land sea...