Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. Divergent thinking explores various outward directions that can possibly lead to a solution whereas convergent thinking is quite linear and inwardly centers on the strongest solution. However, scores from the SWOT are correlated with scores from the RIBS. Heilman, in Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition), 2012. A motor-form divergent thinking task, consisting in producing acted motor forms (e.g., a basketball player), has been also developed (Palmiero et al., 2019). Indeed, much of his thinking on creativity was, and remains, remarkably influential (see Runco 1999d). Guilford (1968, 1986)Guilford, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the intellect. This … Thus, there is no limit on the possible uses of a tin can, and no limit to the number of ways passengers could be carried. Divergent thinking The ability to think out of the box is divergent thinking. David H. Cropley, in Creativity in Engineering, 2015. Divergent thinking tests were also used for prediction of managerial creativity. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Convergent thinking and divergent thinking The psychologist J.P. Guilford first invented the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking back in 1967. Also called: ‘Thinking … This training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in the early 1980s and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape. > Basadur, Graen, and Green stated that engineers in an industrial organization showing significant improvements in problem finding and problem-solving immediately after training and this finding held 2 weeks later on work related measures. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Furthermore, set shifts are facilitated by mental representations of the start state that are more abstract and ambiguous than the one provided in the problem statement. His view was, in this sense, about as far away from that of IQ theories as you can get. However, in the context of the complete design (or creative problem-solving) process, where divergent synthesis is followed by convergent analysis, it highlights an element that is critical to any discussion of the interaction between engineering design and creativity. (2015) PUPOAJ The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. V. Drago, K.M. … Electroencephalographic studies of divergent thinking yield highly variegated results. The Journal of Problem Solving: Vol. The composite of divergent thinking was correlated (both zero-order and part correlations) with the measure of global change and general managerial creativity, but not with the incremental change. Examples include open versus closed thinking, primary process (not bound by strict adherence to reality) versus secondary process (conscious, rational, logical, and oriented to reality) thinking, or reproductive versus productive thinking. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. The ability to generate diverse ideas (divergent thinking) is valuable in solving creative problems (e.g., insight problems); yet, however advantageous, this ability is insufficient to solve the problem alone and requires the ability to logically deduce an assessment of correctness of … The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. In other words, divergent thinking and presumably divergent doing would be underpinned by abstraction of the rules of generating alternatives that work at category level, further allowing access to different known categories and thereby fostering the creation of new categories. Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, which results in multiple possible solutions in short amount of time. 8 Amit Goel, McGill University They also used some other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness. A third possibility involves conflict resolution. On the other hand, coming to a conclusion too quickly can prevent sufficient divergent thinking and limit the number of potential solutions generated. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Another classic divergent thinking task is Match Problems. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Unlike the Alternate Uses Task, Match Problems is a visuospatial problem-solving task. The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. For this reason it has been argued that good performance on Match Problems necessitates ‘set shifts.’ By relaxing the constraints placed on the problem space, set shifts effectively widen the problem space. As one generates more responses, the conflict of choosing between multiple responses would increase accordingly. Admittedly, Guilford’s Structure of Intellect model was pointedly criticized, mostly because of the statistical methods used to separate the 180 cells (Carroll 1968). Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. These neuropsychological results have been corroborated with fMRI data. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. Read more Collaboration: From groan zone to growth zone. Application of the first leads to thinking in a linear fashion, according to conventional logic. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Divergent thinking: As discussed already, divergent thinking is actually a collection of unrelated skills that merely look similar at an abstract level. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. However, predictably, a different picture emerged from fMRI data. Second, as subjects generate and evaluate hypotheses, they need to keep track of successful and unsuccessful attempts. Edward … Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use convergent reasoning. Convergent reasoning or thinking is similar to that which has been termed deductive reasoning. Marginal characteristics of a concept or object that are not central to its usual definition are emphasized and brought into juxtaposition with similar characteristics of other concepts and objects to yield unexpected associations. Research has shown that the more original associations happen late in the associative stream after the first more conventional associations come to mind (Mednick, 1962; Milgram and Rabkin, 1980). Yet even if Guilford’s methods were questionable, his conception of divergent and convergent thinking has proven to be quite useful. Training courses can be thought of as being made up of four primary components: the design of the course, the content included in the course, the way course content is delivered, and the media used during instruction. Researchers believe that you can kickstart divergent thinking with the three B’s: bed, bath, and the bus. A divergent thinker thinks in a way that would include all the possibilities to get to a solution, giving creative ideas to make it work. Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. Lateral Thinking. Problem finding, conceptual combination, and idea evaluation are only a few processes that have been identified as being important contributors to the creative process. To explore this hypothesis, we administered a verbal insight task (riddles) and a divergent thinking task (verbal fluency) to 16 native English speakers and 16 non-native English speakers after they underwent Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of the left middle temporal gyrus and right temporo- parietal junction. Lastly, assessing an individual's response to creative work or examining the degree to which an individual accepts or even initiates creative action is an important aspect of creativity that should be examined. As discussed by several creativity researchers since the development of the divergent thinking construct, creativity can also be thought of as the generation of novel, useful solutions to problems (i.e., problem-solving). Accessibility Statement. This selective impairment was especially apparent in patients with lesions to right ventral (as opposed to dorsal) prefrontal cortex (PFC). > DOI: 10.7771/1932-6246.1172 Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, which results in multiple possible solutions in short amount of time. Specifically, Vinod Goel and Oshin Vartanian have shown that whereas engagement in Match Problems was associated with activation in left dorsal lateral PFC and right ventral lateral PFC, the latter structure was activated exclusively when subjects successfully solved problems that required set shifting. The combination process varies according to the task constraints or the generation rules (e.g., alternative uses, product improvement), which allow the construction of more flexible ad hoc categories. 1 In contrast to divergent thinking, convergent thinking involves seeing–recognizing the similarity or the commonality of phenomena that appear to be different or combining and joining two or more different observations or ideas together so that they provide additional information, for example, putting the pieces of a puzzle together so they make a complete picture. Here’s a sample brainstorm for “paper clip” uses: 1. Divergent thinking tests are also used in numerous educational programs and in various organizational training packages. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Without diversity, these divergent ideas will never see the light of day because people know that the herd mentality of the corporate zombies would trample all over them. … Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Of course, these three explanations are not mutually exclusive, and possibly all contribute to divergent production. One of the best known training programs is the Purdue Creative Thinking program. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The highest flexibility was observed in the anonymous high transformational group and the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership. These findings call into question the usefulness of the divergent thinking … This network is frequently activated in linguistic tasks, and its involvement is not surprising given the verbal nature of the stimuli and the task. Analogical thinking or problem solving, being understood as the use of like problems solutions in guiding solutions of new problems (Goldstein, 2010). Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! Delivery media includes the types of materials that were used to convey material during the course. Iss. According to de Bono, the process of flowing together has its own energy: in the case of water in nature, this is gravity; in the case of ideas, it is creative or constructive psychological energy. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. Divergent thinking is cognition that leads in various directions. Divergent thinking problems means ____. Given that alpha wave activity is an inverse measure of cortical activity, this finding confirms that creativity is linked to task-related variation in cortical function. Scratchley and Hakstian (2000–2001) used a battery of divergent thinking tests that were developed for industrial settings, including three components: the brainstorming exercise, which requires finding many solutions for a management problem; the similarities exercise, which entails finding many similarities between two different objects; and the association exercise which is about finding a word that connects three dissimilar words. Creativity plays a role in innovation, development, and health. Divergent thinking/doing tests are scored in terms of fluency (number of ideas/motor solutions), flexibility (number of categories, mutually exclusive, encompassing ideas/motor solutions), and originality (uniqueness or infrequency of ideas, or overall evaluation of motor solutions by at least two independents judges). Evidence bearing on the effectiveness of this program can be found in Reese, Parnes, Treffinger, and Kaltsounis in 1976 and Basadur, Graen, and Green in 1982. Greater alpha synchronization was especially prevalent in frontal areas of the brain. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. In the context of Match Problems, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC has been shown to covary parametrically with the number of generated solutions. Thinking & Reasoning, 23 (3) (2017), pp. Both insight tasks and divergent thinking tasks are widely used in the creativity literature. This test is composed by word-based exercises—verbal form (e.g., ask-and-guess causes and consequences, product improvement, unusual uses), and picture-based exercises—figural form (e.g., picture completion starting from given stimuli of shapes). Therefore, the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking can be enabled by the combination of related and unrelated categories. The reasons for rejecting solution options in the engineering design process may range from cost (a solution is too expensive) and technical feasibility (a solution is impossible to implement) to safety (a solution is demonstrably unsafe) and risk (a solution poses an unacceptably high likelihood of a serious negative outcome). One of the best and classic examples of a paradigmatic shift using convergent reasoning is the Copernican heliocentric theory of planetary motion. Divergent thinking should be the basis of the generation phase, while convergent thinking should be the basis of the exploration phase. The goal of divergent thinking is to focus on a subject, in a free-wheeling way, to think of solutions that may not be obvious or predetermined. Components of creativity training courses. Creative problem-solving tasks, such as insight problems, require individuals to apply divergent thinking to generate new solutions (incubation and illumination) and to apply convergent thinking to narrow down the options and arrive at the best solution (verification). Specifically, the Alternate Uses Task activated a left-lateralized network comprising the inferior frontal gyrus extending to the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate. On divergent thinking in the visuo‐spatial domain, however, only 15/16‐year‐olds … Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). This leads to the thought that categorization of concepts (a form of abstraction) plays an important role in the manifestation of divergent thinking. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. It’s a straight forward process that focuses on figuring out the most effective answer to a problem. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Seeing these two objects in this way would make it possible to utilize them as the basic materials for the construction of an electric switch. According to psychoanalytic theory (A. J. Cropley & Cropley, 2009), creativity involves biphasic thinking: an initial phase in which unfettered associations are made in the unconscious via primary process thinking (i.e., novelty is generated) followed by a phase in which these associations are admitted into consciousness in the realistic form of secondary process thinking (i.e., they are explored). This linear thinking produces a new way of thinking that can provide new ideas and solutions. Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. Rothenburg also introduced the term homospatial thinking. Divergent and convergent thinking are two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and address challenges. It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking is the most widely used test to assess divergent thinking and creativity. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Anonymity condition yielded higher scores than identified condition in flexibility scores. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. To do this, however, it is again easiest to contrast different poles of thinking—equivalent to the divergent versus convergent contrast. Laurie Miller and Lynette Tippett studied the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match Problems in patients with focal brain lesions. The participants were entrepreneurs who started different numbers of businesses. The authors argued that skills measured by RIBS in the natural environment might come easier than a problem solving tasks. They found a main effect for transformation leadership, with the higher transformational leadership group scoring higher in originality and elaboration than the low transformational leadership group. Unlike conventional thinking, which is strictly sequential in nature and follows a set of logical steps, lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps. Unlike convergent thinking, where the individual gives the one correct or conventional response (e.g., “Who won the 1988 World Series?”), divergent thinking leads the individual to numerous and varied responses. Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. Developed by J.P. Guilford in 1967, the Alternative Uses Test stretches your creativity by giving you two minutes to think of as many uses as possible for an everyday object like a chair, coffee mug, or brick. You may have noticed, however, that it is hard to talk about divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking. Converging methodologies is important because EEG and fMRI, due to their greater temporal and spatial resolutions respectively, offer researchers different types of information and thereby a more complete picture about task-related brain function. Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. Whereas some match problems can be solved by a sequence of generate-evaluate cycles, others involve start states that create strong mental sets that implicitly obstruct certain transformations. Novelty of divergent and convergent thinking; Divergence focuses on unique ideas or original products while convergence considers the utilization of previous techniques. O. Vartanian, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. > The terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking were introduced by a psychologist J.P. Guilford, in 1967. It is not enough to encourage diverse thinking – when you see a load of other white, middle-aged professionals around the table, you will likely suggest solutions that will find approval with your audience. Their results have shown that patients with focal right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those match problems that required set shifts. Solutions for Clients Across Business Requirements . The Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was also administered (Runco, Plucker, & Lim, 2000–2001). We explain this dissociation in terms of differing task demands of divergent thinking and insight tasks and speculate that the greater sensitivity of non-native speakers to tDCS stimulation may be a function of less entrenched neural networks for non-native languages. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. > Earrings 4. Having no known solutions and require the thinking of new approaches to solve them. Summary: Using both Convergent and Divergent Thinking. For example, the fact that a paper clip consists of metal could be emphasized in order to see it as a device for conducting an electric current. Libraries It is closely associated with spontaneity, random thoughts, non-conformity, creativity and thinking “out-of-the-box”. The 25–30‐year‐olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not … Divergent Thinking and Brainstorming in Perspective 313 divergent thinking can be cultivated through training alone and these attitudes linger for several weeks after the training is completed (Basadur, Graen, & Scandura, 1986; Basadur, Wakabayashi, & Takai, 1992). The differences between divergent thinking in the top-down sense and divergent thinking in the bottom-up sense may seem trivial, and indeed, this is of little consequence to the general concept of divergent thinking. Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a common theme. On a cognitive level, one would expect a positive correlation between the number of hypotheses generated and the demand on monitoring resources and relations. Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. and divergent thinking (Guilford, 1967). The Alternate Uses Test is one of the most popular divergent thinking tasks. ... and creative insight occurs in the right hemisphere of the brain. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Divergent thinking, or lateral thinking, is about generating multiple creative solutions to the same problem. , Article 2. Studies show that if you get a full night’s sleep, you will be twice as likely to solve a problem than if you stay up all night. While creative ideas are often the precursor to progress, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies. To the degree that tests of divergent thinking are reliable and valid, they can be taken as estimates of the potential for creative thought. The current study A set of creativity tasks was administered to early (12⁄13 yrs), middle (15⁄16 yrs) and late adolescents (18⁄19 yrs) as well as adults (25–30 yrs). A matchbox can be regarded as a nonconductor with movable parts. Originality is not synonymous with creative thinking, but originality is undoubtedly the most commonly recognized facet of creativity. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. This course was conducted as a lecture along with a discussion of the model presented to trainees. So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. All ideas are valid for idea stimulation in divergent thinking. According to him, there are two ways to find a solution. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. Table 5.2 lists examples of contrasting kinds of thinking favorable on the one hand for production of variability, on the other of orthodoxy. This procedure is unorganized and yields unexpected connections. FAQ | Early EEG results from pioneering studies by Colin Martindale distinguished alpha wave activity in relation to engagement in the Alternate Uses Test from activity in relation to engagement in the Remote Associates Test and intelligence tests. Problem-solving is defined the act of resolving a complex, ill-defined problem using new ideas that have been developed using multiple pieces of information and expertise in order to provide a framework for implementing a solution. 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Ideational fluency, but originality is not synonymous with creative thinking program for maintaining storing! And suggested that creativity is a crucial component of creative thinking is cognition that leads in various organizational packages! Represents a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a theme. And colleagues during the course 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the right frontal lobe were!