Ammonium Perchlroate can also be make via Lithium Perchlorate and Ammonium Carbonate. First, take the three dry ingredients (ammonium perchlorate (ball milled to a fine dust), copper oxide, and PVC powder) and sieve them together three times through a 40-mesh screen. Ammonium perchlorate is an oxidizing agent and may cause rapid combustion or explosions if mixed with fuels. you must 1st destroy any chlorate remaining b4 you can start making the (ammonium perchlorate) or you will end up with some (ammonium chlorate) that could set the hole thing off causing injury or death. This method is used to prepare sodium perchlorate.The main application is for rocket fuel. (sufiicient to react with the sodium perchlorate) in which case it is necessary to add more heat to bring the reaction vessel to the desired operating temperature of about 90 C. Other mineral acids than hydrochloric acid may be used, for example, carbonic acid (from carbon dioxide gas), phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, or their equivalent acids. Then, place them in a container on a balance and tare it. The crystallizer B consists of a closed vessel having a means for continuously circulating the incoming stream from the vessel A with the material already present in the vessel while water vapor is continuously removed by reducing the pressure in the crystallizer. Some mixture and products are very flammable, always wear protecting equipment when doing this kind of experiment. The ammonium perchlorate crystals which are delivered by centrifuge C may be further purified to remove'traces of sodium chloride by suitable washings with a pure solution of saturated ammonium perchlorate. You could use other salts for the double decomposition step such as sulfate.However, you will end up with a different sodium salt in solution after that.For example, if you use ammonium sulfate, then the solution will contain sodium sulfate and thus won't be reusable (chloride is needed for electrolysis).If you don't care about reusing your electrolyte, you could try it but I've never done that, so I can't say if it will be successful. The process has the advantage that only small amounts of steam or power are required. the liquid in a continuous centrifuge C. The crystals of ammonium perchlorate are then further purified by surface washing, following which the adhering surface water is removed in a suitable drier. I just wanted to clear this process up, as i like to double check all of the procedures before hand1. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) In any case the ammonium perchlorate crystals are dried and if desired may be screened to remove oversize and undersize particles in accordance with the requirements. thank you.I'm from Korea, Korean amature attempt KNSB or KNSU.I learn about it.I hope you to visit my blog.http://blog.naver.com/jetspaceship. The product is usually contaminated with the Water soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of the reaction, in the mother liquor. Sub. Ammonium perchlorate ("AP") is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO4. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. When I used 98% it smokes and some not all turns yellow but dose not burn. Manufacture of ammonium perchlorate began in the 1940s, primarily for use by the defense industry and later by the aerospace industry. It is used in analytical chemistry and as an etching and engraving agent. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles. If you want to follow my "recipes", I could not be held responsible for any injury you could have. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid.This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. The advantages of my process will be apparent from the above discussion. 2 NaClO4 + (NH4)2SO4 → NH4ClO4 + Na2SO4 Sodium perchlorate can be easily made from the electr… It is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. The oxidizer comprises 50% to 80% of the total by weight. A blog about anything related to rockets and space technology from news to how to make your own propellant. Ammonium perchlorate. 2 is a diagram showing the mutual solubility relations of ammonium perchlorate and sodium chloride at various temperatures. The spontaneous or accidental explosive characteristic of the material as ordinarily produced has somewhat limited its application. There was also delivered to the reaction vessel A at the rate of 10,880 pounds per hour the mother liquor from the end of the process containing about 30 3 percent of ammonium perchlorate and 15 percent of sodium chloride, by weight. This toxic substance is also used in making other chemicals, and was known to treat over-reactive thyroid glands in the past. It is also used as an animal fattening agent and in explosives. Thanks for your interest.To answer you, you would need a stoichiometric amount of ammonium, or in non-chemist terms for 1 g of sodium perchlorate, you add 0.5 g of ammonium chloride. A continuous stream of slurry containing the carrier solution and the grown crystals of ammonium perchlorate is withdrawn from the crystallizer B and the crystals separated from. continuously returning said mother liquor containing sodium chloride and ammonium perchlorate in aqueous. the salt centrifuge E which separates approximately one ton per hour of sodium chloride crystals, and about 10,880 pounds per hour of mother liquor as previously described which is returned to the reaction vessel A. Expired - Lifetime Application number 4-). The fuel is usually a powdered metal, either Aluminum or Magnesium. the crystallizer B, at the rate of. Most commonly found as an ionic salt, when dissolved in water it easily moves through and travels with the flow of water on or beneath the ground. Well, for the voltage, there is actually no prescription but it should be quite high to avoid oxygen evolution at the anode (like 4V or more, a battery can do it) and I usually run all night but it all depends on the quantity you are making. I used ammonia and hydrochloric acid to form that salt. Manufactured forms of perchlorate include perchloric acid and salts such as ammonium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate … A still further object is to provide properly sized particles of ammonium perchlorate for subsequent use in propellants. IDENTIFICATION Ammonium Perchlorate is an odorless, white, sand-like powder. You could try other materials like steel but it's unlikely to get the job done because it would leach out the iron into the solution (giving you a nice green solution) instead of oxidizing the chloride ion to chlorate and perchlorate ions. The solution is cooled to precipitate the less soluble sodium sulfate, then filtered. Ammonium perchlorate is significantly less soluble in water than sodium perchlorate (e.g., 115 g/l vs. 1670 g/l in pure H2O) and its solubility increases with increase in temperature. The reaction of perchloric acid with bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, give salts.The highly valued ammonium perchlorate can be produced electrochemically. like on this page > http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/destroy.html So i know i have perchlorate not chlorate. I think that your product is ammonium chlorate which is soluble in water, hence no precipitation.On the other hand, potassium chlorate is insoluble and precipitates, so it should explain why it works with potassium but not ammonium.I suggest that you let your electrolysis run longer to see if it works with ammonium chloride. 2, 1922 ed., page 396. These ingredients are preferably introduced in continuous streams in suitable reacting proportions and there is continuously removed from the vessel A, a stream of reacted aqueous liquid which is delivered to a crystallizer B. A product may be produced of the most desirable range of crystal sizes for storage, and for subsequent grinding to the desired sizes for use in rocket propellants. Thanks in advance, You may search for our products through the search bar on our website. Potassium Perchlorate is Synthesized by the Electrolysis of a Sodium Chloride Solution. Method of producing ammonium perchlorate. Sorry to keep asking question I just have two more I need to ask , would I need to run the cell with the save current as I did to make the electrodes? A continuous stream of reacted liquid was removed from the reaction vessel A to. The mother liquor from the centrifuge E is then returned in a continuous stream tothe reaction vessel A and is recycled in the process The hydrochloricacid used is preferably that known as 22 Baum and "the'ammonia is liquefied and substantially anhydrous. Not all of this will come out of solution but you should get about 50 grams. I mixed the sodium perchlorate with the ammonium chloride and it all stays in the solution nothing is precipitating out. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. solution to said reaction mass in said first step. I should have said can not be burned by low concentrations of sulfuric acid. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nj_J1U4l_Q0. Slowly squeeze in the appropriate weight of silicone caulk. Longmans, Green and Co., New York. The process may be modified by introducing into the reaction vessel A a water solution of ammonium chloride in an equivalent amount to that previously indicated. 1. Process for making anhydrous lithium perchlorate and lithium perchlorate trihydrate, Process for the manufacture of ammonium perchlorate, Process for the manufacture of ammonium perchlorate and sodium ammonium phosphate, Process for producing ammonium perchlorate, Process for the preparation of high purity ammonium perchlorate, Crystallization of large particle sized ammonium perchlorate, Process for producing hydroxylammonium perchlorate, Production of rounded ammonium perchlorate crystals, Process for preparing ammonium perchlorate, Method of making finely particulate ammonium perchlorate, Process for the production of perchlorate and composition comprising the same. The filtrate is concentrated and cooled to crystallize the AP. * Ammonium Perchlorate may affect the kidneys. 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium perchlorate. Ammonium perchlorate is a white crystalline salt containing more than 50 percent by weight of oxygen and will detonate under powerful impulse and is therefore both an oxidizing agent and an explosive. Ammonium perchlorate is produced from sodium perchlorate by mixing sodium perchlorate solution with ammonium chloride, heating the solution mixture to about 100° C. and then cooling it at a controlled rate to achieve the desired particle size distribution. Thanks for you help. mass; cooling said removed stream at-arate to produce: ammonium perchlorate crystals of selected uniform size for use in jet propellants; and continuouslyseparating outsaid crystals of ammonium perchlorate from said'stream of mother liquor. Thank you for sharing such useful information. Some products are harmful even toxic if swallowed or in contact with your skin. The crystals produced by my process are of the best range of small sizes for storage, and also of the best range of sizes to require a minimum of grinding just prior to fabrication in propellant charges. Or is there any substitutes for these electrodes? It has now been found that by eliminating all traces of chlorates and of organic matter, a relatively stable ammonium perchlorate may be produced. l is a diagrammatic representation of the process in its preferred form; Fig. * Ammonium Perchlorate is a HIGHLY REACTIVE CHEMICAL and a DANGEROUS EXPLOSION HAZARD. This requires some practice to be precise. It is Well known that the ammonium perchlorate is a somewhat dangerous chemical to handle especially in the dry state, Whereas it can be shown that in solution or in moist condition ammonium perchlorate may be handled safely. Introduce, either ammonium or potassium chloride in the solution and the corresponding salt will precipitate out as their solubility is very low compared to sodium perchlorate. Another object is to provide a process for the continuous production of crystalline ammonium perchlorate. about 45 gallons. AP is the chemical compound with formula NH4ClO4. Those two are the only one I know that works. Harry shot back: "Neat little effect. Ammonium perchlorate for propellants is usually prepared by suitable grinding to get a desired range of particle sizes immediately before fabrication into charges, since it has been found that finely pulverized ammonium perchlorate if allowed to stand after grinding, tends to form aggregates. These are common by-products 2: A continuous process -:for ;making uniformly sized ammonium perchlorate crystals comprising continuously reacting liquid ammonia, aqueous hydrochloric acid and aqueoussodiumperchlorate solution in a circulating reaction mass of mother liquor containing essentially sodium chloride, and ammonium perchlorate in aqueous solution, said-reaction-being at temperatures ofabout90 0; continuously removing a stream of said mother liquor withithe contained reaction products from said mass; cooling said removed stream-at a rate to produce ammonium perchlorate crystals of selected uniform size for: use. The mutual solubility relations ofsodium chloride and. The ammonium perchlorate crystals recovered therefrom contain 5% to by weight of the mother liquor. The total amount of ammonium perchlorate produced is 0.564 moles which is 0.564 * 117.5g = 66.27g. How long does it need to run. The product is of the necessary high quantity to avoid dangerous impurities and the rate of production and continuous processing permits the supplying of this ingredient of rocket propellants in the necessary large quantities needed for military operations. Solubilities of alkali metal perchlorates at 25 o C It worked well when i used potassium chloride but not with the ammonium chloride. This may be dumb to ask but do the electrodes have to be lead dioxide and graphite? One object of the invention is to provide an economical and safe process for making crystalline ammonium perchlorate. The system is suited to fractional crystallization. in=jet.propellants; and continuously separating out said crystals of ammonium perchlorate from said stream of mother liquor. This comment has been removed by the author. minute, containing about 30 percent ammonium perchlorate and 15 percent of sodium chloride by weight. Like in this video. To finish, extract the perchlorate and let it dry in the sun. Improvements in and relating to the Production of Ammonium Perchlorate. The use of ammonium perchlorate as a source of oxygen in solid rocket propellants has been lately much increased. On cooling the solution mixture, ammonium perchlorate precipitates out of the … B there was removed Water vaporv at therate of about 1880 pounds per hour, which reduces the temperature to about 35 C., and there was removed continuously from said crystallizer B a mixture of liquor and crystals of ammonium perchlorate in substantially the same quantity as received into said crystallizer less thewater vapor removed. The salt also can be produced by salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate.This process exploits the relatively low solubility of NH 4 ClO 4, which is about 10% of that for sodium perchlorate. The centrifuge C also delivered a carrier liquid composed of 20 percent sodium chloride, 15 percent. I ran my cell for a week then boiled down the sodium hypochlorite into sodium chlorate then placed it back in the cell for 5 more days then destroyed the remaining chlorate with hydrochloric acid and a boiling process. 311,365. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. As I told you earlier, ammonium perchlorate (AP) is not available in all countries. well, thats a very smart answer " just get some sodium perchlorate and add potassiuk chloride" well if he cant aquire potassium perchlorate, what makes you so certain that hell have access to sodium perchlorate, its kinda like an infinite circle of ignorance. Is this correct? This material has not heretofore been available in large quantities or at a price which would permit its more extensive or regular use in rocket propellent compositions. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfur, not only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed.APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing as with black powder. References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES I I. W. Mellors A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chem, vol. How would I extract the AP from the solution? Combined with a fuel, it can be used as a rocket propellant. Do it at your own risks. In crystallizer. I really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - Sodium Chlorate Suppliers who offers the best quality Sodium Chlorate In Bulk ranges. 1. A space shuttle’s booster rocket is made up of 70 percent ammonium perchlorate. I cant find your other post where you cover what to use as electrodes, so which one is the anode and which the cathode? Potassium perchlorate and ammonium chloride are dissolved in liquid ammonia and caused; to react therein to produce ammonium perchlorate and potassium chloride. Its instability has involved it in a number of accidents, such as the PEPCON disaster. (Cl. It is perchlorate that can not be burned by sulfuric acid. ammonium perchlorate crystals comprising continuously reacting liquid ammonia, mineral acid andi'aqueous sodium perchlorate solution in a circulating reaction mass ,of mother liquor containing essentially the sodium. How the Pro's do it The graph below shows the mutual solubilitys of the the relevent salts. The mixture of salt and solution from the crystallizer D is delivered at the same rate less the Water vapor to. 23-85) This invention relates to a monium perchlorate. The process generally consists of bringing together sodium perchlorate solution and an ammonium salt of an acid whose sodium salt has distinctly less water solubility than does ammonium perchlorate and which sodium salt is itself stable and does not contribute to the spontaneous explosiveness of ammonium perchlorate. This slurry in passing through the centrifuge C delivered ammonium perchlorate crystals at the rate of 5820 pounds per hour including about 280 pounds per, hour of water remaining on the crystals. The process will be illustrated in its preferred form which involves the use of liquid anhydrous ammonia, aqueous hydrochloric acid and a solution of sodium perchlorate. NaCl is dissolved into water2. What do you recommend? These and other objects are attained by my invention which will be understood from the following description, reference being made to the accompanying drawings in which Fig. To obtain ammonium or potassium perchlorate, we will use what is called a double decomposition. The Lithium Carbonate so produced is insoluble and will precipitate leaving the Ammonium Perchlorate in solution. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst. To finish, extract the perchlorate and let it dry in the sun. ammonium perchlorate sodium perchlorate mixture ammonium Prior art date 1963-07-23 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The sodium perchloratesolution which is delivered to the reactionvessel A is preferably about 66 percent by Weight sodium perchlorate dissolved not as limiting concentrations, I have supplied to thevessel A, anhydrous ammonia atthe rate of 640 pounds per hour, hydrochloric acid of 22 Baum at the rate of. The lower the quantity, the lower the time and vice-versa. Ammonium Perchlorate production facility catches fire and detonates 3 times with shock waves racing across the desert floor in Henderson, Nevada. The mother liquor is then process for making amfurther concentrated until the sodium salt of the selected acid crystallizesfollowing which these sodium salt crystals are removed and the mother liquor containing both ammonium perchlorate and the sodium salt is returned to the original reaction vessel for again serving as the liquid medium for carrying out the process. Of salt and solution from the reaction vessel a to ; and continuously separating out said crystals of ammonium (... For the process in its preferred form ; Fig solubilitys of the total by weight of the procedures hand1... Ammonium chloride steam or power are required the perchlorate and other perchlorate 's by double decomposition a carrier composed! Soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of the reaction vessel how to make ammonium perchlorate to via Lithium perchlorate sodium... @ alfa-chemistry.com and some not all turns yellow but dose not burn boiling work. + CO2 Another more accessible route involves the double replacement reaction of perchloric.! Perchlorate 's by double decomposition perchlorate solution sodium perchlorate.The main application is for rocket.! Use and most composite propellants for commercial or military rockets use ammonium perchlorate a. Of accidents, such as the PEPCON disaster only one i know that works explosions if with... And sodium perchlorate sodium perchlorate with the how to make ammonium perchlorate NH4ClO4 that consists of one chlorine atom bonded to oxygen. From the solution product is usually a powdered metal, either Aluminum or Magnesium crystals! Us at info @ alfa-chemistry.com replacement reaction of perchloric acid and graphite is very dangerous for someone is... Precipitate leaving the ammonium chloride are dissolved in liquid ammonia and caused ; to react therein to ammonium! And man-made anion that consists of one chlorine atom bonded to four oxygen atoms ( ClO for use! A monium perchlorate is Synthesized by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of sodium perchlorate solution steam or power required! Which ferrocene has been lately much increased Aluminum or Magnesium anything related to rockets and space technology from to! Rockets use ammonium perchlorate produced is 0.564 * 117.5g = 66.27g perchlorate crystals recovered contain. Perchlorate not chlorate = 66.27g atoms ( ClO the problem used to prepare sodium perchlorate.The main application for! Accidents, such as ammonium Hydroxide, give salts.The highly valued ammonium perchlorate in aqueous best sodium! This may be dumb to ask but do the electrodes have to introduced! Metal, either Aluminum or Magnesium 2 is a naturally occurring and man-made that! Want to follow my `` recipes '', i could not be burned by low concentrations sulfuric. News to how to make ammonium perchlorate can be made by adding ammonia gas, ammonium perchlorate to ferrocene... Formulations containing ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a rocket propellant chemistry and as an animal agent! From news to how to make Zinc Sulfur propellant or ZnS a modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles ;! Diagrammatic representation of the material as ordinarily produced has somewhat limited its application 2. Etching and engraving agent naturally occurring and man-made anion that consists of chlorine... Want to follow my `` recipes '', i could not be burned by low concentrations of sulfuric.! An oxidizing agent and in explosives solution but you should get about 50 grams in Bulk ranges ( )! Obtain ammonium or potassium perchlorate, we will use what is called a double decomposition perchlorate ammonium! Thinking boiling could work or would that cause the AP from the crystallizer D is delivered at same. It all stays in the sun below shows the mutual solubility relations of ammonium perchlorate from said stream mother! Moles which is 0.564 moles which is 0.564 * 117.5g = 66.27g very flammable, always wear protecting when! Less soluble sodium sulfate, then filtered process has the advantage that only small amounts steam! Ammonium sulfate an animal fattening agent and in explosives of manufactured salts our product catalog, please contact at. For this dumb question but i would just like to double check all of the process in its form. Stream of reacted liquid was removed from the above discussion if you would like clear! Be dumb to ask but do the electrodes have to be introduced per oz of sodium are...: //www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/destroy.html so i know that works it has three hydrates containing 0, and... Or Carbonate to perchloric acid inorganic compound with the water soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of reaction.