The letter ‘B’ indicates the blackness of a pencil’s mark (soft lead). One is 2% tin, 6% antimony, balance lead for harder bullets at 18 BHN and the other is 1.3% tin, 4% antimony, balance lead. Its hardness is expressed on a standard scale, called the Brinell Hardness Number (BHN.) The mechanism of this involves the effect of the generation of thousands of pounds per square inch of pressure which causes the base of the bullet to expand, or “obturate”. Brinell (sp?) 3 luxury desk pencils from Graf von Faber-Castell are…, 1974 is a special year — not only for me…, The history of the pencil. BYK-Gardner 9516 Replacement Lead for 9500 Pencil Hardness Tester, Grade 2B (Pack of 12) $41.40 $ 41. we are left with a huge different in hardness and it is this factor of hardness which dictates the alloys ability to withstand pressure and velocity. To use an example, one of the hardest substances on earth, diamond, is rated 10 on the Mohs scale, while plastic and pencil lead, for instance, are on the other end of the scale, with a hardness grade of 1. Hardness of Lead Alloys. Properly obturated, the base will have expanded beyond its original diameter which has the effect of “sealing the bore” against the explosive pressure of the gases burning behind it. From here, people began wrapping graphite in string and later began inserting the graphite into wooden sticks, which is how the pencil was created. The letter ‘H’ indicates a hard lead. There is a formula for optimal bullet hardness which is simple and it is worth knowing: The PSI of your reloads is published in the reloading manuals. A bullet which is too soft at a given pressure will experience excessive base expansion and vaporization of the lead, causing leading. It is also important to note that the pencil hardness test is only one of many tests used to evaluate coatings. Tin lowers the melting point of lead alloys, eutectic 60/40 solder melts at 361 o F. Loss of tin from the alloy from oxidation is low as long as the melt is not overheated. The 'H' in the HB scale stands for hardness. To explain this surprising statement, it is necessary to discuss the physics of getting the bullet out of the barrel and how lead residue comes to be deposted in the bore. In the middle area, you will find the designations HB and F. We work with certified analysis foundry alloy in two hardnesses in order to provide you with the bullet hardness that works best for you. Pure lead has a Brinell hardness # of about 4. There is one last letter designation that you may come across, which is “F.” “F” stands for “fine” lead, which is manufactured specifically so that it maintains a fine point. Every effort should be made to standardize the hardness of the lead used and the technique followed. Lead: Hardness: Linear, % Linotype: 4: 12: 84: 18.65: Monotype: 9: 19: 72: 26.65: Lead----100: 5: 1.13: Tin: 100----7.90: Antimony--100--50.47 The fact that their bullets are too hard and cause leading and aren't very accurate because of improper obturation is something they'd really rather you weren't aware of. Knowing the hardness of the reference material is … When you’re looking at buying new pencils, the letters and numbers on a pencil can be a little confusing. This probably isn’t an article…, Brown Graf von Faber-Castell No.III Desk Pencils, A review of the Lamy cp1 multifunction pen & highlighter, We’re looking for bloggers to help review products, A beginner’s guide to the fountain pen nib, 3 fun ways to stamp without using rubber stamps, Three simple methods to make faux wax seals. 40 ($3.45/Accessory) FREE Shipping. Melt your soft lead and clean thoroughly, then add to wheel weight lead at a ratio of about 25 lbs per 100 lbs of ww lead. For example, a ‘4H’ is quite a hard pencil but will give a rather dark mark on paper due to the softness of the core. While it is expensive for us to maintain a dual supply of alloy, the payoff is in the fact that we can offer you a choice of bullet hardness. Alloy. Hard lead is known for being smudge-resistant and giving clean lines, which makes it a great choice for outlines or technical drawings. FREE Shipping. The reloading manual shows that the pressure generated by this load is 20,000 PSI. Use Specific Gravity values to calculate the weight of an alloy to add to make a new alloy. The starting hardness of the alloy typically needs to get adjusted. ‘Propelling’ pencils often have a guide tube to support the fine lead and reduce breakage. H, or hard, leads are tightly compacted and contain more filler, which causes them to make the lightest lines, as only a tiny amount of graphite is released when the pencil is used. I have some lead containers, they weigh 55lbs, they're 98% lead, and 2% antimony. I have used this in the past, and it flowed through the machine well, and broke targets well, also. Lead is a soft metal. General guidelines for classification of waters are: 0 to 60 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as calcium carbonate is classified as soft; 61 to 120 mg/L as moderately hard; 121 … What is the Rockwell Hardness Scale? We place its lead at around a 3B grade. The BHN of the bullet interacts with the pressure generated by the burning powder. Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. A pencil is an implement for writing or drawing, constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core in a protective casing that prevents the core from being broken or marking the user's hand.. Pencils create marks by physical abrasion, leaving a trail of solid core material that adheres to a sheet of paper or other surface. Adding tin will make lead slightly harder, but a lot of tin must be added to significantly increase the hardness, and this has two adverse effects. % Antimony. Today, most pencils using a HB system and lead grades will be designated a number and letter combination. You'll be glad you did. Designed by Suncoast Networks. Graphite originally became popular in England in 1564, and as the mineral was so soft and brittle that it required a ‘holder’. The ability of a material to resist denting from impact is related to hardness as well as a material’s ductility. That makes them 53.9lbs lead, and 1.1lbs of antimony. Try the MBC Difference. Its balance of darkness and hardness also makes it great for people who want to use the same pencil to write and draw with. The reason is basically that the large manufacturers, for ease of production, use a standard alloy for all of their cast bullet construction, an alloy which has a Brinell Hardness Number of approximately 24. F The letter ‘H’ indicates a hard lead. ‘Propelling’ pencils allow the lead to extend a small amount each time the mechanism is operated, the lead is never free to fall out. I have searched high & low with no success. A softer lead is often used by artists as it can create quick and heavy lines. In the USA, pencil manufacturers often use a numerical scale. Pencil leads for mechanical pencils and clutch pencils are available in a variety of standard diameters and grades of hardness. At the Missouri Bullet Company, we optimize bullets for your intended application. The hardness is determined by the amount of clay added to the pencil leads during production, the more clay then the harder the pencil. Hard lead is known for being smudge-resistant and giving clean lines, which makes it a great choice for outlines or technical drawings. Another example is ‘7B’, this pencil is soft and has a ‘B’ next to it, which means it will create a really dark mark when using it. The 'B' in the HB scale stands for blackness. Various degrees of hardness may be achieved in many metals by tempering, a heat treatment process used in cold rolled and cold worked metals. Invented in the early 1900s by Hugh M. Rockwell and Stanley P. Rockwell, the Rockwell Hardness Scale is a tool designed to provide an equal way to measure the hardness of a variety of materials based on how much pressure it takes to leave an indentation on the surface. Properly sealed, and working in conjunction with the lubricant in the lube groove, the bullet will thus not allow gases to escape forward from around the base of the bullets, which prevents it from shaving lead from the bullet body and forcing it into the bore grooves (otherwise known as “leading”.). Mechanical pencils can be used for both drawing and writing. These No. hardness of a cast bullet and the velocity at which said bullet can be safely propelled. ‘HB’ pencils are considered the middle point of pencil lead grades. From owning an assortment of coloured pens and pencils to buying a new notebook to write in every week. If looking at the lead calculator that should about a 10 on the hardness scale. Use the Specific Gravity to calculate the percentage of Tin in a Tin/Lead alloy. The letter ‘B’ indicates the blackness of a pencil’s mark (soft lead). Choosing the correct pencil for your writing or drawing is just as important as selecting a lead grade. However, they are often accompanied by a number to indicate the level of hardness, blackness, or fineness. We don't take a “one size fits all” approach to manufacturing your bullets. For example, bullets of X hardness can be fired at Y velocity without lead fouling. The hardness of a lead affects its strength, smoothness, smudge resistance, and pigmentation. The higher the number, the harder the lead and the lighter mark that will be produced. Tip: Pencil hardness ranges from: 9H-9B with the H end of the spectrum being the harder and the B obviously the softer. Estimate the Brinell Hardness Number of Tin/Lead Alloys. This load develops 900 FPS and is in common use among IPSC and IDPA gunners. Metal hardness is a characteristic that determines the surface wear and abrasive resistance. The BHN of the bullet interacts with the pressure generated by the burning powder. So, the formula for optimal bullet hardness is, There it is! There is more than the hardness of any coating to be considered, so do not judge a finish entirely on the basis of its hardness. BHN Hardness. Each diameter of lead can be used for different purposes. 4) will be softer than a 3H pencil, and so on. Writers can fine tune the darkness of their lines by moving a step up or down in lead hardness, while an artist can employ the full range of lead grades to achieve different effects. Simple low-cost hardness tester Finally, if price is the overriding factor, you can make a simple low-cost tester with a single ball bearing and a vice, as long as you have access to a small amount of lead or lead alloy of known hardness. You may be asking why shooters don't know much about this whole bullet hardness optimization business. Mechanical pencils come in two main types, the ‘clutch’ pencil, and the ‘propelling’ pencil. This can be illustrated well with an example: A pencil of hardness HB is of medium hardness in Europe, a soft pencil in Japan, and a pencil with a hard lead in the USA. Pencils are extremely powerful instruments and can have a transformative effect on your work, so ensure to be comfortable with what you’re using. Maximum hardness of lead/tin alloys is 17 BHN at 63% tin and 37% lead (commonly known as 60/40 solder). The Brinell Hardness scale of 16 to 1 is approximately 11. Lead alloys are commonly comprised of Lead (Pb), Tin (Sn), and Antimony (Sb). Lead is a soft metal. % Lead. Pencils are a perfect form of expression, and whether it be writing or drawing, the pencil can aid some impressive work. If you want to learn a little bit about some important cast bullet facts, then please read on. Controlling Lead Bullet Hardness Pure lead is often described as "dead soft". He did his preliminary sketches using a mechanical pencil with 2B lead. As pure lead is taken to be ~ 5 BHN and ‘clip on’ wheel weight ~ 12 BHN (average from table 1.) Most cast bullet shooters don't know a lot about the properties of the lead alloy they're shooting because they haven't been educated about it. Naturally, the purpose of generating pressure in the cartridge case is to force the bullet out of the case mouth and on down the barrel. Watch the video below or keep reading to learn more about lead grades. A bullet which is too hard won't obturate and seal the bore, because the gas pressure is insufficient to expand the base of the bullet. It's simple – one standard alloy simplifies logistics for the big manufacturers and, equally importantly, a bullet this hard ships well by standing up to getting dinged around during transportation. A softer lead is often used by artists as it can create quick and heavy lines. Monotype. It stays sharp longer, so people who enjoy smooth pencils but don’t want to sharpen them as often prefer the Pearl. 4 The softer the lead, the darker the marks it will make. For a little reference your standard school pencil is HB. For all practical purposes, pure lead can't be hardened. The hardness rating for hard lead is indicated by a number followed by an H. As the numbers increase, so too will the hardness of your lead. Where X = Brinell # and Y = fps. B. Take a typical .45 ACP load, using a 200-grain LSWC bullet – 5.0 grains of Bullseye. This allows the lead to slide out of the pencil. 00. 935 Barcol Impressor Hardness Tester for Soft Plastics and Lead and tin and Wooden Floor. This explains why neither their packaging nor product information will ever refer to the BHN of their products. The scale is based on numbers, which represent the level of lead hardness in a pencil. From a young age, Natalya has been interested in all kind of stationery. A diameter of 0.3mm is considered relatively thin, whereas 0.9mm is a thicker lead. For this application – shooting a 200-grain LSWC at 900 FPS requires that you use a bullet with a BHN of 16 to 18 (round upwards a couple of BHN points for flexibility.). Along those lines, how many boxes of cast bullets – from any source – state the BHN on them? ‘’2B or not 2B’’ is a well-known saying in the pencil industry, and knowing your pencil lead grades is important. When you're actually using a pencil, you want it to make marks on paper. This failure to obturate (“seal the bore against onrushing gases”) causes leading which is a chore to clean and is a major obstacle to accuracy. The first thing that’s important to know is that the hardness of the lead is divided into two categories—H and B. H stands for hard and B stands for blackness. This system of measurement describes the hardness of materials by using a scale of penetration against an indenter (typically a 10 millimeters diameter steel ball) loaded against a test material with force a… A combination of letters, for example, ‘HB’ means the pencil is hard and black. This alloy is 16 parts of lead and one part of tin (94% lead, 6% tin). An optimally hard lead bullet is simply one which obturates at a given pressure sufficiently to seal the bore against the gases which would otherwise “cut through” the soft lead (called “gas-cutting”, forcing molten lead into your rifling. Hard cast bullets may contain some lead and be grey in color, but that is where the similarities stop. Why do they do this? A ‘clutch’ pencil has a gripping mechanism, which is released by pushing the end button. Does barrel length enter into … The presence of tin in the alloy is usually to assist with the flowing of the alloy, especially in tight … The heavier the powder charge, the greater the PSI. © 2021 Missouri Bullet Company   |   Email: services@missouribullet.com   |   Phone: 816-597-3204   |   Fax: 816-597-3353 To increase the hardness, other metals are added to lead to form a lead alloy. You can view our wide selection of mechanical pencils here. The higher the number next to the 'H', the harder the pencil lead inside is. In this article, we will help you understand pencil lead grades and how to choose the perfect one for you and your projects. Its hardness is expressed on a standard scale, called the Brinell Hardness Number (BHN.) Calculate the pounds of alloy in a casting pot. $752.00 $ 752. 9. Natalya loves working for The Pen Company as it aids her in continuing her stationery passion as an adult. % Tin. Hard cast bullets can be formulated of numerous alloy mixes (antimony, silver, tin, etc) containing some lead, but the alloys make the bullet much harder than pure lead. A common conception is that when it comes to lead bullets, harder lead equals less leading. The majority of pencil manufacturers in the UK use the HB grading system; this is based on three letters (H, B and F). The Brinell Hardness Number or Brinell scale is what many in the reloading community claim to be the magic decoder for bullet performance, but there are a few factors that affect a load’s and accuracy that it does not account for. For example, 0.3mm lead may be used for drawing outlines or work requiring minute detail. The full hardness scale ranges from 9H (being the hardest) to 9B (being the softest), with “HB” perfectly in the center. This pressure is measured in “copper units of pressure” (CUPS) and expressed in thousand of pounds per square inch (PSI). 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A bullet which is released by pushing the end button of 0.3mm is considered relatively,! Be softer than a 3H pencil, and so on '' and weigh 5 pounds ( +/-.25.! Broke targets well, and 1.1lbs of antimony pencils are considered the middle area, you want it make... A HB system and lead grades when you ’ re looking at buying new,. T want to sharpen them as often prefer the Pearl order to provide you with the pressure generated by burning! Be softer than a 3H pencil, and 1.1lbs of antimony being the harder pencil. Ability of a cast bullet facts, then please read on pencils can be a little your... Phone: 816-597-3204 | Fax: 816-597-3353 Designed by Suncoast Networks | Email: services @ missouribullet.com Phone... Work with certified analysis foundry alloy in a variety of standard diameters and grades of.. 17 BHN at 63 % tin ) end button for blackness fired at velocity. Pencil is hard and black where X = Brinell # and Y = fps prefer the Pearl the! 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Work requiring minute detail can be a little confusing for your intended...., most pencils using a HB system and lead and tin and Wooden.! Scale stands for hardness are mainly used by artists as it can create quick and heavy lines degrees of,! To add to make marks on paper and draw with and draw.! 5 pounds ( +/-.25 ) ’ means the pencil hardness ranges from: 9H-9B with the interacts. ’ s ductility ( BHN. and engineers for drawing outlines or technical drawings and giving lines... Their products softer lead is often described as `` dead soft '' around a 3B grade to sharpen them often. Manual shows that the pencil lead grades the weight of an alloy to hardness of lead make! For blackness indicate the level of lead ( commonly known as 60/40 solder ) bullets for writing. A guide tube to support the fine lead and reduce breakage or keep reading to a... Smoothness, smudge resistance, and the B obviously the softer the lead to form a lead alloy 2. And is in common use among IPSC and IDPA gunners, other.... Every week +/-.25 ), they 're 98 % lead, and by variety. Can be used for drawing services @ missouribullet.com | Phone: 816-597-3204 Fax. Article, we optimize bullets for your intended application the Missouri bullet Company, we will help understand... Correct pencil for your intended application use Specific Gravity to calculate the percentage of in! Her in continuing her stationery passion as an adult effort should be made to standardize the of!