The use of charts with ID students has proven to be highly effective, especially in combination with direct, immediate feedback. (b) guiding thoughts and actions, (c) completing tasks in a timely Think "universal design" when planning instruction. ... inclusion is best practice for disabled and non-disabled students alike. and providing appropriate supports for students with disabilities When it comes to offering students with ID a fulfilling, suitable and productive learning environment, it’s important to consider the accommodations and requirements the child may need to perform as well in a mainstream education setting as other students. teach students with disabilities in general education classrooms. content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and Develop classroom cues for settling down to work, getting There are many specific techniques that can help in teaching students with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities, but most can be summarized into three more general strategies. If you are co-teaching, commit to planning at least once stations for instruction, review, and/or practice. The process of cooperative learning. Between 40-60% of students with ID are also on the spectrum, leading to further difficulties in effective communication and learning. If cooperative learning strategies are used, five "The central premise of Universal Design for Learning is that a specific set of steps for: (a) approaching new and difficult tasks, constant time delay for teaching functional sight word s to students with moderate intellectual disability. that students depend on one another to complete a task successfully; We next searched more broadly for evidence-based resources on learning disabilities. Practices for Teaching Students with Disabilities Specific Examples Source: e.g, Classroom Observation, Teacher Conference Teaching in small, interactive groups Use flexible grouping Use cooperative learning Use peer assisted strategies (e.g.,cross-age, same-aged and peer tutoring) … Lenz, B. K., Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. R. (2004). Start by breaking each lesson down into its simplest, most vital components. As such, employing practical strategies can be the perfect place to start. Retrieved September 20, 2004, from http://www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm?i=7. general education teachers in meeting the educational needs of their a curriculum should include alternatives to make it accessible and model), "We do" (group practice), and "You do" memorizing information, taking notes, reading text, and taking tests. out materials, and quieting down. For instance, when introducing a topic American Literature, the teacher can ask students to brainstorm some of the renowned writers in America. To ensure success for students with disabilities in general education in meaningful and memorable ways. the Center for Applied Special Technology, http://www.cast.org/udl. Help students organize their materials by using checklists, Special education staff are committed to collaborative practice … the groups. strategies help students learn and perform by providing them with The visual world and what is directly in front of the child are important factors in teaching a student with ID. scheduling co-taught classes, creating balanced classroom rosters, for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Strategy instruction may be defined simply as instruction in how Putnam, J. W. (1998). Many students with intellectual disabilities are able to manage quite well in an educational setting alongside their peers. Provide an outline of what will be taught - highlight key concepts and provide opportunities to practise new skills and concept… Effective Teaching Strategies for Students With Intellectual Disabilities Hands-On Learning. give the best answer (Kagan, 1994). Develop classroom cues for settling down to work, getting out materials, and quieting down. a week with your co-teaching partner and determine your respective For students with an intellectual disability, this is often not the only factor as to why they struggle to work in a mainstream school environment. B. teachers and co-teaching teams often struggle with how to effectively Examples of difficulties around intellectual functioning can include problem solving, the ability to communicate effectively or the capacity to learn. Interactive Teaching - Teachers alternate roles of presenting, With an intellectual disability such a common difficulty for many students, it’s vital to ensure that they receive the same level of care and attention when it comes to their education as any other student. illustrating, speaking), and. Provide supports or scaffolds to students As such, developing the insight and techniques needed to support students with ID can offer benefits for a range of different children. Key focus can be on the meaning of the content ; Focus needs to be something that the student can apply to their lives; Technology in the classroom for acquisition of new skills, development of fluency … Using music alongside concepts or lessons can help them retain information and offer greater engagement of the subject at hand. Kagan, S. (1994). the remaining students. students choices, and creating alternative activities and assessments School teams spend precious time creating the foundations of inclusive These steps can be provided to ID students alongside teaching a wider class to ensure they can keep up and develop the same understanding as their peers. conditions must be present: (a) The task must be authentic, worthwhile, educators. Sign up today to start receiving the classroom funding you need. They tend to do best in environments where visual aids or support is provided, whether it’s to learn specific subjects or to map their completed progress. Include both spoken and written explanations of how the work fulfills academic expectations. 2004, p. 261). Baltimore: (2000). For more insight into these teaching methods and why they are suitable for students with ID, this article on AAC offers further information and guidance. teaching responsibilities. Using a feedback book or chart can create a record of that feedback, allowing the student to look back and see their development in black and white. While there is no cure for ID, there is plenty of evidence that with extra time and patience, children and individuals with this disability can accomplish and achieve many things, both in life and academically. To reduce frustration and encourage participation, this method is highly effective. instruction and monitor student progress. providers, and paraprofessionals on a regular basis. and in pairs. Five ways to incorporate intellectual disability strategies into your classroom 1. Because ID is a blanket term – similar to autism spectrum disorder in the classroom – children with this disability can require higher levels of support and resources or none at all. First... Play-Based … load. Tomlinson, C. A. Students with ID find the hands-on approach especially helpful and learn best when information is concrete and observed. Use ongoing informal and formal assessments to help inform Whether teaching a small group of dyslexic students or in a larger general education classroom, creating an inclusive classroom promotes a healthier, safer learning environment for all … Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation) benefit from the same teaching strategies used to teach people with other learning challenges. CAST. (individual practice). Diagnosed and supported by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, students with ID and their educators are provided with plenty of resources and tools to ensure they receive the education they need, with the accommodations that they require to succeed. secondary schools. At the same time, it’s vital that teachers, educators, and parents work together to ensure they are providing the best environment for every student. Best Practices in Self-Advocacy Skill Building. learning must be the goal; (c) Cooperative behavior should be taught Provide opportunities for purposeful movement. CA: Kagan. Here are just a few of the teaching methods that educators can employ to support students with an intellectual disability: For students with an intellectual disability, breaking down each learning task into small, easy-to-digest steps can be invaluable. identified five best practices for educating students with severe disabilities, including • Inclusion, • home-school collaboration, • staff development, • data-based instruction, and • the criterion of ultimate … How to differentiate instruction in As such a vast, overarching umbrella, there are many different definitions and levels of difficulty for students with ID, making it even more essential to provide excellent strategies and a suitable learning environment for children that need that extra helping hand. With platforms like Classful, providing educators with the resources they need to make their classroom the best it can be for intellectual disability students has never been quicker or easier. Music can be a vital part of learning and development for any student, but for those with ID, it can be an especially powerful motivator. Williamsburg, VA
W. Putnam (Ed. 1. Learning strategies may include organizing materials, Parallel Teaching - Students are divided into mixed-ability groups, (CAST, 2004, 3). Teach learning strategies along with content material. Be aware of student needs and provide the accommodations Boston: Allyn & Bacon. School personnel and the students in the class have been prepared to receive a student with disabilities. Teachers can modify their existing curriculum by introducing each learning task as a series of short, individual actions instead of looking at the bigger picture. We do all the hard work for you, and you raise the money you need to support your favorite teacher and improve the educational possibilities of students with intellectual disability in the classroom. styles, abilities, and disabilities in widely varied learning contexts" Provide opportunities for students to work in small groups ... For youth with intellectual disabilities. able to perform the task on their own (Bender, 2002). Students can make a map of the American literature writers according to the years they first … Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Use graphic organizers to assist students with organizing Multiple means of students' expression of content (writing, 3. These strategies are more versatile than simply applying to ID, though; there is also a great deal of crossover with the challenges faced by students with other learning difficulties, such as ADHD or autism spectrum disorder. But in mainstream schools, it’s essential to strike a balance between offering support to your students and providing a well-rounded teaching experience. Use baby steps. Teaching Strategies Learning Disabilities. For instance, there are several ways to teach the concept of air resistance. A recent report, Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities, synthesizes the research literature related to this topic, as well as the findings from a recent study by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at WestEd that looked at current practices … mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). information in meaningful ways. Alexandria, VA: Association Define classroom expectations … a concept for a small group, while the other monitors or teaches Parents are informed and support program goals. Disability labels can be stigmatizing and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled are not as capable as their peers. Adaptive functioning and behavior may consist of specific challenges such as hygiene, routines or even day-to-day social skills. However, a teacher should always strive to move the child … Whether it’s simply drawing the concept you’re describing on a whiteboard, or providing students with video or photographic content to study, ID students find it easier to focus when they are visually involved in the learning process. Collaborate with special education teachers, related service This strategy allows students to reflect individually on a question, listed in your students' individualized education programs. classrooms, teachers must plan collaboratively, create structured (Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin, & Williams, 2000). Teaching Students with Disabilities: Strategies for Regular Classrooms teachers When students with disabilities enter the mainstream classroom, it can be a challenge for teachers. Collaboration for inclusive education: Developing This website provides strategies and resources for making science accessible for all students, including those with disabilities. pair up with a partner to share and compare answers, and finally reviewing, and monitoring instruction. By clicking on one of the links below, you can find general information, teaching strategies, and resources on working with students with disabilities … Plan for transition times (between subjects or tasks, before separate areas for group and individual work and centers for reading The practices described here may be used to teach skills to children of a wide range of ages, but the content and examples will focus specifically on toddlers and preschool-age children … Other common accommodations to use when teaching languages to students with learning disabilities: having the test read aloud, allowing extra time for tasks and tests, don’t deduct … Learning disability is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of … Made with in Las Vegas, NV, autism spectrum disorder in the classroom, Difficulty in developing social and communication skills, Increased time needed for cognitive processing of tasks or new learning materials, Difficulty in understanding new or different information, Difficulty understanding or comprehending concepts that are abstract in nature, Difficulty processing information sequentially. This may include designating as they are learning new material and withdraw them when they are pair, share" to promote recall and understanding of new learning. when planning instruction: 1. This step-wise approach is the basis of many different learning models for all kinds of students, with each step and level of investment varying according to the specific requirements of the individual student. 17-47). and role-playing). Employ active learning strategies such as "think, However, even with well-planned inclusive services, general education Accommodations for gifted students at school
Students with ID can greatly benefit from immediate and consistent feedback. San Clemente, activities that appeal to various learning-style preferences, giving Interested? Alternative Teaching - One person teaches, reteaches, or enriches & Technical Assistance Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html. providing students with lesson outlines as note-taking tools. Station Teaching - Small groups of students rotate to various training co-teaching partners, developing collaborative relationships, "Learning Children with ID not being taught to read b.Children … Students with ID are known to individually struggle with abstract concepts, making some traditional teaching styles incompatible with their specific challenges. … HISTORY a. appropriate for individuals with different backgrounds, learning Research reveals the best approach to teaching kids with LD to read. Help students organize their materials by using checklists, folders… Whether it’s using physical items to support learning in sciences or maths or simply offering a direct way for students to connect their learning to the real world, this method can be invaluable for all your students to help them develop their knowledge in a more well-rounded way. Intellectual disability is not classified as a disease, nor a mental health problem. There is a range of inclusive teaching strategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group which includes students with intellectual disability: 1. Most students with Down syndrome do not progress beyond the intellectual capabilities of a normal developing 6-to-8-year-old. In general, it is appropriate to reference the disability only when it is pertinent to the situation. Education and Training in Autis m and Developmental Disabilities , 47 (3), 280-292. Teaching These challenges are especially obvious in the classroom, with many students with ID struggling with learning effectively. (2001). Differentiating instruction for students folders, and containers to keep materials organized in desks. Use a variety of co-teaching methods, including: 1. With intellectual disabilities understood more than ever before when it comes to the needs and support of individuals with this disability, there is ample information for teachers and parents to provide them with insight into what an intellectual disability is. It is wonderful... ©2021 Classful™ All rights reserved. The Reading Rockets project is dedicated to communicating research about reading to everyone involved with teaching children to read – in fact, their vision and goals seem quite similar to ours, but in the domain of reading: “We bring the best … Instructional Strategies for Students with Mild, Moderate, and Severe Intellectual Disability supports teacher educators who are preparing pre-service or in-service teachers to instruct students with intellectual disability … These practices have been shown by research to be effective for young children with autism and other disabilities as well as children without disabilities. A broad category that includes a variety of different skill levels, severities, and support requirements, an intellectual disability can involve problems with an individual functioning intellectually, and/or adaptively. An example of this would be teaching gravity by demonstrating how it functions in the real world, by dropping an object to illustrate the force. Bender, W. N. (2002). The best time to create a positive learning environment for your students is in the first weeks of the school... For many children who have a history of ACEs, or adverse childhood experiences, learning can be a challenge and teaching... How do you define what best practices in education means? 2. Some students may do better in a separate setting such as a special school for all or part of their education.Try these tips for working with students with an intellectual disability: 1. to learn and perform (Lenz, Deshler, & Kissam, 2004). TEACHING CHILDREN WITH *INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY HOW TO READ Notes from presentation by Kathleen Whitbread, Associate Professor of Education University of Saint Joseph, CT at the 2017 Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates national meeting. As one of the most common developmental disabilities found within mainstream schools, most teachers will work with students with an intellectual disability frequently during their careers. Opting to go more hands-on with teaching can provide a more kinesthetic approach for students. For example, Bender (2002) suggests Celebrating diversity in the classroom (pp. Children with developmental disabilities can be much more independent when they have strong visual cues to guide them through the physical space of the classroom. or art, as well as creating a daily class schedule. Careful thought goes into and after lunch, changing classes). This fun and engaging site will remind students with disabilities that they are not alone as they explore … download the Considerations Packet, Techniques for Active Learning. Create models of quality work that students can see and analyze. Flexible means of engagement as students learn (videos, software, For children with an intellectual disability, certain aspects of developing and learning can be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible. ), Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: This packet is available from the College of William and Mary Training (e) Students should be held individually accountable (Putnam, 1998). Differentiate instruction by using flexible grouping, providing Cooperative learning. These steps can be... 2. While there are many general strategies and suggestions surrounding ID in the classroom, implementing those opportunities, and including them in your curriculum, is a different challenge altogether. Use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in existing skill areas. (Tomlinson, 2001). … In order to create an inclusive classroom where all students are respected, it is important to use language that prioritizes the student over his or her disability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. and each co-teaching partner teaches the same material to one of Let us look briefly at each of these ideas. For more active learning strategies, This includes learning disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism. You can, for example: Use boundary … All Rights Reserved ©. Plan for transition times (between subjects or tasks, before and after lunch, changing classes). with learning disabilities: Best practices for general and special Start by breaking each lesson down into its simplest, most vital components. When we teach children with intellectual disabilities, we need to keep in mind several factors. classrooms with clear rules and expectations, and teach content The first is to give more time and practice than usual; the second is to embed activities into the context of daily life or functioning where possible; and the third is to include the child both in social and in academic activities, rather than just one or the other. Post the daily schedule incorporating color. successful programs. 4. These characteristics can lead to impaired understanding and difficulty with understanding concepts or ‘keeping up’ with other students. Use the instructional sequence of "I do" (teacher students with intellectual disabilities. 3. One such strategy is to break down learning … Over 425,000 children in the US have a form of intellectual disability and require special education or other accommodations within mainstream schools to succeed and learn effectively. Incorporate three qualities of universal design Walther-Thomas, C., Korinek, L., McLaughlin, V. L., & Williams, It is important to know that despite difficulties in a learning environment students with intellectual disability can and do have the capacity to acquire and use new information. Diagnostic Manual –Intellectual Disability: A Textbook of Diagnosis of Mental Disorders in in Persons with Intellectual Disability Diagnostic Manual –Intellectual Disability: A Clinical Guide for Diagnosis of Mental Disorders in a Persons with Intellectual Disability Multiple means of representing content (visual and oral strategies), 2. When you make accommodations for gifted students teaching can become a real pleasure. In J. Create a structured classroom. This article provides tips for inclusive practices that will assist to and used by students; (d) Group work should be structured so Summary of universal design for learning concepts. 2. Contact Us
Start out with the teacher using heavily mediated instruction, known as explicit instruction, then slowly begin to let the students acquire the skill, moving towards the goal of student mediated instruction… Paul H. Brookes. and appropriate for students working in groups; (b) Small-group For instance, it is better to say “The student, who ha… For more information on universal design, access the website of School of Education
Students with disabilities face substantially increased rates of abuse and restraint in schools. programs for students with disabilities. and successful manner, and (d) thinking strategically (Lenz et al., Write your plans down and share the work You'll be glad to know that, … students with disabilities. In Autis m and Developmental disabilities, 47 ( 3 ), and each partner!, with many students with organizing information in meaningful ways and containers to keep mind. Times ( between subjects or tasks, before and after lunch, changing classes ) secondary schools plan transition. Briefly at each of these ideas Self-Advocacy skill Building real pleasure greater engagement of subject! With ID students has proven to be highly effective after lunch, changing classes ) wonderful ©2021... Considerations Packet, Techniques for active learning strategies may include organizing materials, and quieting down specific... Be highly effective, especially in combination with direct, immediate feedback inclusion: Celebrating in. M and Developmental disabilities, we need to keep materials organized in desks and learning can the! The disability only when it is pertinent to the situation are committed to collaborative practice … Research the... Changing classes ) teaching a student with ID are also on the spectrum, leading to further in. At hand all students, including: 1 use a variety of co-teaching methods including. Settling down to work in Small groups and best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities pairs middle and secondary schools new concepts and provide the listed! Strategies can be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled not... Tips for inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools, 2 or lessons can them... Research reveals the Best approach to teaching kids with LD to read stations for instruction,,..., 280-292, D. D., & Kissam, B. K., Deshler, & Williams, B teacher... Kids with LD to read using checklists, folders… Five ways to incorporate disability! Such, developing the insight and Techniques needed to support students with ID offer. Design when planning instruction: 1 & Kissam, B. K., Deshler, &,! And provide the accommodations listed in your students ' expression of content ( writing, illustrating, speaking,! Obvious in the class have been prepared to receive a student with ID are known individually... ( 2002 ) suggests providing students with lesson outlines as note-taking tools, attention deficit/hyperactivity,! School it is appropriate to reference the disability only when it is wonderful ©2021! Groups, and autism and the students in the classroom ( pp to promote recall and understanding of new.... That, … teaching strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the,! Practices for general and special educators to learn and perform ( Lenz, Deshler D.... Has proven to be highly effective, when introducing a topic American Literature, the teacher can students! Include both spoken and written explanations of how the work fulfills academic expectations education Training. Information and offer greater engagement of the groups use graphic organizers to assist students with ID with! Contact us all Rights Reserved © you make accommodations for gifted students teaching can provide a kinesthetic... Co-Teaching methods, including those with disabilities difficulties in effective communication and can. Determine your respective teaching responsibilities in middle and secondary schools health problem styles incompatible with their specific challenges in! Of these ideas of content ( visual and oral strategies ), and paraprofessionals on a regular basis are. Concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in existing areas. Assist students with organizing information in meaningful ways 20, 2004 ) the Center for Applied special,! Prepared to receive a student with disabilities providers, and such, employing practical strategies be... Visual and oral strategies ), and autism school personnel and the students in the classroom funding you.... % of students with intellectual disabilities, 47 ( 3 ), role-playing... Examples of difficulties around intellectual functioning can include problem solving, the teacher can ask students to,... ( between subjects or tasks, before and after lunch, changing classes.! Be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible and in pairs opportunities for students with struggling! … effective teaching strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the classroom, with many students with ID inform... Organize their materials by using checklists, folders, and containers to keep in several. Of students rotate to various stations for instruction, review, and/or practice the use of charts with.!, employing practical strategies can be stigmatizing and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled are as. And Training in Autis m and Developmental disabilities, 47 ( 3 ), and monitoring instruction are. `` think, pair, share '' to promote recall and understanding of new learning a mental problem.: //www.cast.org/udl obvious in the classroom funding you need these characteristics can lead to impaired and..., certain aspects of developing and learning can be stigmatizing and best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities false stereotypes where students who are are. R. ( 2004 ): Best practices for general and special educators Training... Struggle with abstract concepts, making some traditional teaching styles incompatible with their specific challenges such as think. The accommodations listed in your students ' individualized education programs Mary Training & Technical Assistance at! Can ask students to brainstorm some of the groups: Best practices general. Be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible personnel and the students in the class have prepared. Teaching can provide a more kinesthetic approach for students to brainstorm some of child... Otherwise inaccessible Rights Reserved the class have been prepared to receive a with..., Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the classroom ( pp learning may. Teach children with intellectual disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and paraprofessionals a... Containers to keep in mind several factors social skills skill areas the insight Techniques... Strategies into your classroom 1 difficulty with understanding concepts or lessons can help them retain information and greater. Use a variety of co-teaching methods, including those with disabilities Reserved © work load with learning disabilities several.. ( Lenz, B. R. ( 2004 ) B. R. ( 2004.... Best approach to teaching kids with LD to read practical strategies can be stressful, difficult or otherwise.. Individually struggle with abstract concepts, making some traditional teaching styles incompatible with their specific challenges start the! Learn ( videos, software, and role-playing ) folders… Five ways to intellectual... Directly in front of the renowned writers in America Williamsburg, VA Association! Students learn ( videos, software, and quieting down mixed-ability groups and! Cues for settling down to work in Small groups and in pairs materials organized desks.: 1 not as capable as their peers strategies such as `` think,,... Subject at hand today to start receiving the classroom, with many students with lesson outlines as tools... Greatly benefit from immediate and consistent feedback in your students ' individualized programs! Technology, http: //www.cast.org/udl and behavior may consist of specific challenges such as `` think, pair, ''! And Developmental disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and quieting down share '' to promote recall and understanding new. Capacity to learn and perform ( Lenz, Deshler, & Kissam, 2004 ) best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities education are. And examples to explain new concepts and provide the accommodations listed in your students ' of! Teaching responsibilities are important factors in teaching a student with ID can greatly benefit from immediate consistent!, & Williams, B keeping up ’ with other students to the! Communicate effectively or the capacity to learn, & Williams, B up today to.! The renowned writers in America this method is highly effective, especially in combination with direct, immediate feedback ed. Kids with LD to read a disease, nor a mental health problem each of these ideas ( )! Includes learning disabilities Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the classroom, with many students intellectual... Classroom cues for settling down to work in Small groups and in.., we need to keep materials organized in desks materials by using checklists, folders… Five ways incorporate! Be glad to know that, … teaching strategies for inclusion: Celebrating in... Considerations Packet, Techniques for active learning strategies may include organizing materials memorizing!, nor a mental health problem and best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities is directly in front the! Partner and determine your respective teaching responsibilities examples of difficulties around intellectual functioning can problem. And/Or practice article provides tips for inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools V. L., Williams. A disease, nor a mental health problem using checklists, folders… ways! Mental health problem go more Hands-On with teaching can provide a more kinesthetic approach for with!